Thursday, 5 January 2017

Elephant Facts

1) Carl Linnaeus first described the Elephas maximus from Sri Lanka in 1758.
2) Loxodonta africana is the scientific name of African elephant. Elephas maximus is the scientific name of Asian elephant.
3) Male African elephant is the largest land animal.
4) It can reach a height of 4 m (13 ft) and weight of 7,000 kg (15,000 lb).
5) The skeleton of the elephant is made up of 326–351 bones.
6) The long trunk of an elephant is called the proboscis.
7)The trunk is a fusion of the nose and upper lip.
8) The trunk contains up to 150,000 separate muscle fascicles.
9) The trunk has no bone and little fat.
10) The trunk has ability to make powerful twisting and coiling movements.
11) The trunk is used for breathing, olfaction, touching, grasping, lifting and making trumpet sounds.
12) The trunk can lift up to 350 kg (770 lb) weight.
13) An adult Asian elephant is capable of holding 8.5 L (2.2 US gal) of water in its trunk.
14) Elephants are polyphyodonts that have cycles of tooth falling and  rotation throughout their lives.
15) Elephants usually have 26 teeth.
16) The modified incisors of the upper jaw of elephants are known as the tusks.
17) The tusks can serve as weapons and as tools for moving objects and digging.
18) Tusks can grow continuously at about 17 cm (7 in) a year.
19) The dentine is known as ivory.
20) Ivory consists of criss-crossing line patterns known as "engine turning," which create diamond-shaped areas.
21) The tusk is fastened to a socket in the skull.
22) In African elephants tusks of same length are present in both males and females (up to 3 m or 10 ft).
23) In the Asian species, only the males have large tusks.
24) One of the biggest threats to elephant populations is poaching for ivory trade.
25) Hunting for elephant ivory has led to natural selection for shorter tusks and tusklessness.
26) China was the biggest market for poached ivory
27) Large ear flaps help elephants to control their body temperature.
28) As the African bush elephants live in the hottest climates they have the largest ear flaps.
29) The elephant is a pachyderm with thick and tough skin that is generally at 2.5 cm (1 in).
30) Elephants have difficulty in releasing heat through the skin because of their low surface-area-to-volume ratio.
31) The elephant uses mud as a sunscreen to protect its skin from ultraviolet light.
32) Elephants can consume as much as 150 kg (330 lb) of food and 40 L (11 US gal) of water in a day.
33) Elephants run wi2h their front legs, but walk with their hind legs to a top speed of 18 km/h (11 mph).
34) An association of elephant families is known as a bond group.
35) A cluster of elephants during a dry season, is known as the clan.
36) Elephants communicate with seismic vibrations and infrasonic sounds produced by impacts on the earth's surface or acoustical waves.
37) While detecting seismic signals elephants lean forward and put more weight on their larger front is known as the "freezing behaviour".
38) The most well known elephant call is the trumpet which is made by blowing through the trunk.
39) Elephants are capable of hearing at low frequencies and are most sensitive at 1kHz.
40) Seismic waves produced by elephant movements reach distance of up to 32 km (20 miles) while those from trumpet vocalisations travel 16 km (10 miles).
41) Elephants have cognitive maps in their brains that allow them to remember large-scale spaces over long periods of time.
42) Male elephants in musth emit a distinctive, low-frequency pulsated rumble sound called the "motorcycle".
43) After a female elephant mates  with a male her family produces calls of excitement called "mating pandemonium".
44) Adult male elephants reach a state of increased testosterone levels and aggression known as musth.
45) Gestation period in elephants is 22 months.
46) Long pregnancy in elephants is maintained by five corpus luteums (as opposed to one in most mammals).
47) Long pregnancy gives the elephant foetus more time to develop, especially brain and trunk.
48) Caring of baby animals by someone other than its mother is known as alloparenting.
49) The lifespan of elephants is generally 70 years in the wild.
50) Elephants are considered as keystone species due to their impact on their environments.
51) The first mammals to be affected by human encroachment into forests are elephants.
52) Elephants have been the working animals since Indus Valley Civilization.
53) Woolly mammoth were ruling the world in the Late Pleistocene
54) Most proboscidean species (elephant species) vanished during the Quaternary glaciation which killed off 50% of genera.
55) African elephants are listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the Asian elephant is classified as endangered.
56) Elephants can transmit tuberculosis (TB) to human beings.
57) Elephants belong to the class Mammalia as it is a milk giving animal.
58) Elephants belong to the order proboscidea due to presence of tusks and long, muscular trunks.

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