Monday, 10 October 2016


1) What are the first vascular plants?
A) Pteridophytes
2) What are the vascular cryptogams?
A) Pteridophytes
3) What are the non-vascular cryptogams?
A) Gymnosperms
4) What are the plants without flowers and seeds?
A) Cryptogams
5) What are the diffetent groups of pteridophytes?
A) Ferns, horsetails, clubmosses, spikemosses and quillworts.
6) What are pteridophytes that closely related to seed plants?
A) Ferns & horsetails
7) What are the lycophytes?
A) Club mosses, spike mosses and quillworts
8) What are monilophytes?
A) Ferns
9) What are the different groups of fossil Pteridophytes?
A) Rhyniophyta, Zosterophyllophyta, Trimerophytophyta, & progymnosperms.
10) What is meant by alternation of generations?
A) Alternation of diploid generation with haploid generation 
11) Which is the diploid phase of a plant?
A) Sporophyte
12) Which is the haploid phase of a plant?
A) Gametophyte
13) Which is the spore producing plant?
A) Sporophyre
14) Which is the gamete producing plant?
A) Gametophyte
15) Which is the only group of plants in which both 
gametophyte and sporophyte are independent and free-living?
A) Pteridophytes
16) Which is the group of plants in which the sporophyte is dependent on the gametophyte?
A) Brtophytes
17) Which is the group of plants in which the gametophyte is dependent on the sporophyte?
A) Phanerogams
18) What are the male organs in bryophytes and pteridophytes?
A) Antheridia
19) What are the female organs in bryophytes and pteridophytes?
A) Archegonia
20) What are the gametophytic plants with either antheridia or archegonia?
A) Dioicous plants
21) What are the  gametophytic plants with both antheridia and archegonia?
A) Monoicous plants
22) What is the condition in which antheridia mature earlier than archegonia?
A) Protandrous
23) What is the condition in which  archegonia mature earlier than  antheridia?
A) Protogynous
24) What is the term used to describe the leaves of pteridophytes?
A) Fronds
25) What are the pteridophytes that grow on other plants?
A) Epiphytic pteridophytes
26) What are the aquatic ferns?
A) Water velvet & mosquito fern
27) What is the scientific name of water velvet?
A) Salvinia molesta
28) What is the scientific name of the mosquito fern?
A) Azolla
29) How many species of pteridophyte are so far described?
A) 13,000 species
30) What is the height of the tallest pteridophyte?
A) 36.5 meters [120 feet]
31) Which pteridophyte is considered as the ancestor of modern club mosses?
A) Lepidodendron
32) Name the tiny floating fern which is used as "green fertilizer" in rice fields?
A) Azolla
33) What is the common name of Lycopodiopsida?
A) Club mosses
34) What is the common name of equisetopsida?
A) Horse tails
35) What are microphylls? 
A) Leavess with a single, unbranched vein and modest vascular supplies that do not cause breaks or gaps in the stem vasculature.
36) What are the pteridophytes with microphylls?
A) Club mosses & horse tails
37) What are macrophylls?
A) Leaves with extensively branched veins leaving distinctive gaps in the xylem and phloem of the stem.
38) What are the pteridophytes with macrophylls?
A) True ferns
39) What is the common name of Filicopsida?
A) True ferns
40) What are the spore producing organs?
A) Sporangia
41) By which process spores are formed in sporangia?
A) Meiosis
42) What is the asexual phase of plants?
A) Sporophyte
43) What is the sexual phase of plants?
A) Gametophyte
44) What is the product of sperm and egg?
A) Zygote
What is the first diploid stage of plants?
A) Zygote
45) What is the phenomenon of production of similar spores?
A) Homospory
46) What is the phenomenon of production of dissimilar spores?
A) Heterospory
47) What are the larger spores?
A) Megaspores
48) What are the smaller spores?
A) Microspores
49) What is formed from a megaspore?
A) Megagametophyte
50) What are the sex organs produced by megagametophytes?
A) Archegonia
51) What are formed from microspores?
A) Microgametophytes
52) What are the sex organs produced by microgametophytes?
A) Antheridia
53) What are the Heterosporous pteridophytes?
A) Selaginellales, Isoetales, Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae
54) What is the result of heterospory?
A) Evolution of seed plants
55) Which part of the fern plants are used in floral arrangements?
A) Leaves
56) What is the powder that used to coat  rubber gloves, prophylactics and photographers' flash powder?
A) Spores of club mosses
57) What is the sporangia-bearing cone-like structure?
A) Strobilus
58) What are the leaves in the strobilus?
A) Sporophylls
59) A group of sporangia on leaves - Sorus
60) Which is quillwort?
A) Isoetes
58) Which is thr orsetails?
A) Equisetum
61) What was the period of horsetIls?
A) Carboniferous Period (300 million years ago)
62) What are "scouring rushes"?
A) Horsetails
63) Which mineral element gives roughness to the stems of scouring rushes?
A) Silicon
64) What is the scientific name of bird's nest fern?
A) Asplenium nidus
65) What is the scientific name of sword fern?
A) Polystichum
66) What is the special hygroscopic belt of cells around the sporangium useful in spore dispersal?
A) Annulus
67) What is the minute heart-shaped microscopic gametophyte of pteridophytes?
A) Prothallus
68) What is the scientific name of the bracken fern?
A) Pteridium
69) What is the scientific name of the Australian tree fern?
A) Alsophila australis
70) What is the underground stem of pteridophytes?
A) Rhizome
71) What is vernation?
A) Arrangement of leaves in bud condition
72) What is the characteristic kind of vernation seen in pteridophytes?
A) Circinnate Vernation
73) In what kind of vernation leaves are arranged like a watch spring?
A) Circinate vernation
74) What are the first land plants?
A) Bryophytes
75) What are the first true land plants?
A) Pteridophytes
76) What are the botanical snakes or snakes of the plant kingdom?
A) Pteridophytes
77) What are the vascular plants without flowers and seeds but with embryos?
A) Pteridophytes

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