Monday, 3 October 2016


Bryophytes are the amphibians of the plant kingdom that form the connecting link between aquatic algae and terrestrial pteridophytes. They show both vegetative and sexual methods of reproduction. The process of reproduction  depends on the availability of water in the surroundings.

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1) What are the non-vascular embryophytes?
A) Bryophytes
2) What is the common feature of all land plants?
A) All are embryophytes
3) What are the amphibians of the plant kingdom?
A) Bryophytes
4) What are the three types of bryophytes? 
A) Mosses, hornworts, and liverworts
5) What are the land plants or embryophtes with dominant gametophytes?
A) Bryophytes
6) What are the enclosed reproductive structures in bryophytes? 
A) Gametangia & sporangia
7) What are the gamete producing structures?
A) Gametangia
8) What are the spores producing structures?
A) Sporangia
9) Which is the haploid phase of bryophytes?
A) Gametophyte
10) Which is the diploid phase of bryophytes?
A) Sporophyte
11) What kind of cell division is required to produce gametes in gametophytes?
A) Mitosis
12) What kind of cell division is required to produce spores in sporophytes?
A) Meiosis
13) What is the first phase of a gametophyte?
A) Spore
14) What is the first phase of a sporophyte?
A) Zygote
15) Name the liverwort that bears gametangia on umbrella shaped gametangiophore?
A) Marchantia
16) What are the male gametangia?
A) Antheridia
17) What are the female gametangia?
A) Archegonia
18) What are the homothallic, monoicous, bisexual or hermaphrodite bryophytes?
A) Bryophytes in which both antheridia and archegonia occur on the same gametophyte
19) What are the heterothallic, dioicous or unisexual bryophytes?
A) Bryophytes in which antheridia and archegonia occur on different gametophytes
20) What are the plants in which antheridia and archegonia are borne on the same branch or structure?
A) Paroicous or paroecious gametophytes
21) What are the plants in which antheridia and archegonia are borne on different branches or structures?
A) Autoicous or autoecious gametophytes
22) What is meant by hepatophyta?
A) Liverworts
23) What is meant by anthocerotophyta?
A) Hornworts
24) What is meant by bryopsida?
A) Mosses
25) What kind of movement is exhibited by antherozoids or spermatozoids in bryophytes?
A) Chemotaxis
26) Which is the parasitic phase of a bryophytic plant? A) Sporophyte
28) What are the hats of the bryophytes?
A) Sporophytes (capsules)
27) What are the most primitive true plants?
A) Bryophytes
28) What is the most essential factor for a bryophytic plant to reproduce?
A) Water
29) What is the most suitable season for a bryophytic plant to reproduce?
A) Rainy season
30) What is the spore factory?
A) Sporangium
31) What is the approximate number of bryophyte species?
A) 18,000
32) What are the most abundant Bryophytes?
A) Mosses
33) What are the least abundant Bryophytes?
A) Hornworts
34) What is the most common method of vegetative reproduction in bryophytes?
A) Fragmentation
35) What are the vegetative structures that are formed due to dessication in bryophytes?
A) Tubers
36) What are the characteristic vegetative structures on the dorsal surface of Marchantia?
A) Gemma cups
37) Name the bryophytes with star shaped gemmae?
A) Blasia
38) What is the process of having a single vigorously growing upright branch in Sphagnum moss?
A) Innovation.
39) What is the filament like stage produced by a moss spore?
A) Primary protonema
40) What is the filament like stage produced from parts other than a moss spore?
A) Secondary protonema
41) What are the small starch containing resting buds on rhizoids?
A) Bulbils
42) What is the process of the production of diploid gametophyte from the unspecialized sporophyte without meiosis?
A) Apospory
43) What are the detachable branches which help in vegetative reproduction?
A) Cladia
44) What is the process of survival of a species from season to season witha period of reduced activity?
A) Perennation
45) What kind of sexual reproduction is seen among bryophytes?
A) Oogamy
46) What are the cells that metamorphose into antherozoids in bryophytes? A) Androcytes
47) What are the different chemical substances from  archegonia that attract antherozoids towards them? A) Sugars, malic acid, proteins, inorganic salts of potassium etc.
48) What is the multicellular structure formed from zygote?
A) Embryo
49) In what kind of embryogeny the outer cell develops into embryo?
A) Exoscopic embryogeny
50) Why are bryophytes called homosporous?
A) All spores are similar in shape, size and structure
51) What are the hygroscopic structures in the sporophyte of Marchantia that help in spore dispersal?
A) Elaters
52) What are the hygroscopic structures in the sporophyte of Anthoceros that help in spore dispersal?
A) Pseudo elaters
53) What is the haploid  gametophytic tissue that encloses the diploid sporophyte in bryophytes?
A) calyptra
54) How are called the spore that are formed due to meiosis?
A) Meiospores
55) What is the first cell of the gametophytic phase?
A) Spore
56) What are the connecting links between  algae and pteridophytes?
A) Bryophytes
57) What kind of flagella are possessed by the antherozoids of bryophytes?
A) Whiplash type
58) What is the filamentous juvenile stage in mosses?
A) Protonema
59) What are the primitive and simple leafless and rootless sporophytes of mosses?
A) Protonema
60) Name the bryophyte with stomata?
A) Anthoceros (sporogonium)
61) What is the process in which mixing of genes of two parents occur to produce genetically different offspring?
A) Sexual reproduction
62) In what kind of reproduction daughter plants are derived from just one parent plant?
A) Asexual & vegetative reproduction
63) What is the medium of transfer of antherozoids in bryophytes?
A) Water
64) What are the jewels of Marchantia?
A) Gemmae
65) What are the club shaped gametangia?
A) Antheridia
66) What are the flask shaped gametangia?
A) Archegonia
67) Which is the egg bearing part of the archegonium?
A) Venter
67) What are the cells that develop at the sporophyte-gametophyte boundary in bryophytes?
A) Transfer cells
68) What is the phenomenon of development of more than one sporophyte from an archegonial group?
A). Polysety
69) What are the spore producing cells?
A) Spore mother cells or sporocytes.
70) By which process spore tetrads are formed?
A) Meiosis
71) What is the central sterile tissue in the capsules of Anthoceros and mosses?
A) Columella
72) What are the two layers in the spore wall of bryophytes?
A) Exospore & endospore
73) In what kind of alternation of generations morphologically different gametophyte and sporophyte present?
A) Heteromorphic alternation of generations

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