Thursday, 29 September 2016

REPRODUCTION IN FUNGI (117 Qs)


Fungi are the cell wall containing heterotrophic multicellular organisms with vegetative, asexual and sexual methods of reproduction.  A myriad kind of spores and hyphae with characteristic colours can be seen in the kingdom.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.




QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What kind of cell division is required for binary fission in eukaryotes?
A) Mitosis
2) How is a single population formed from fission is described?
A) Clones
3) Which fungus reproduces through fission?
A) Yeast
4) What is the vegetative method of reproduction in filamentous algae and fungal hyphae?
A) Fragmentation
5) Which propagation method is used in the laboratory for the inoculation of saprophytic fungus?
A) Hyphal tip method
6) What is the common vegetative method of reproduction in hydra and yeast cells?
A) Budding
7) What are the motile asexual spores in phycomycetes fungi?
A) Zoospores
8) What are locomotory organs of Zoospores?
A) Flagella
9) What are the most common zoospores?
A) Biflagellate zoospores
10) What are the structures that produce zoospores?
A) Zoosporangia
11) What are the lower fungi that produce zoospores?
A) Albugo, Pythium, Phytophthora
12) Name fungi that produce uniflgellate zoospores.
A) Allomyces, Rhizidiomyces
13) Name fungi that produce biflgellate zoospores.
A) Plasmodiophora, Saprolegina
14) What are the spherical propagules formed due to breaking down of hyphae?
A) Oidia
15) What are the two types of thallospores in fungi?
A) Arthrospores & Chlamydospores
16) What are the modified non-motile zoospores with a thick wall to tide over unfavourable conditions?
A) Aplanospores
17) What are the fungi that produce aplanospores?
A) Mucor, Rhizopus
18) What are the two wall layers of sporangiospores in Mucor and Rhizopus?
A) Exosporium and Endosporium
19) What are the common asexual exospores in zygomycetes?
A) Sporangiospores
20) What are the common asexual spores in Ascomycetes & Deuteromycetes?
A) Conidia
21) What are the common exospores in fungi?
A) Conidia
23) What are the hyphae that bear conidia?
A) Conidiophores
24) What are the conidia of Alternaria?
A) Porospores
25) What are the conidia of Aspergillus?
A) Phialospores
26) Name the fungus that produces micro and macroconidia.
A) Fusarium
27) What are the special cells that bear conidia?
A) Sterigmata
28) What are the fungi that bear multicellular conidia?
A) Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
29) What are the different kinds of structures that produce exospores in pustules?
A) Pycnia, aecidia, acervuli, and sporodochia
30) How are called the closely packed parallel plates of Conidiophores?
A) Synnema
31) What are the pitcher shaped structure with ostium with conidiophores?
A) Pycnidium (Pycniospores)
32) What is the saucer-shaped structure with tightly packed conidiophores ?
A) Acervulus
33) What is the saucer-shaped structure with loosely packed conidiophores ?
A) Sporodochia
34) What are the fungi that produce basidiospores in umbrella shaped fruiting bodies?
A) Mushrooms  (Basidiomycetes)
35) What are the asexual spores formed from sporangia?
A) Sporangiospores
36) What are the special fungal hyphae that bear asexual spores in fungi?
A) Sporangiophores & Conidiophores
37) How is called the organism that produces different types of spores?
A) Pleiomorphic or polymorphic
38) What are the different types of spores produced by pleiomorphic rust fungus?
A) Spermatia,  Aeciospores, Uredospores, Teliospores and Basidiospores
39) What are the spores that are directly formed on filaments or hyphae?
A) Exogenous spores or exospores
40) What are the spores that are  formed inside special reproductive structures?
A) Endogenous spores or endospores
41) Name the organisms without sexual reproduction.
A) Blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) and fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
42) What are the fungi without sexual stages?
A) Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
43) What are the asexual forms of fungi?
A) Anamorphs
44) What are the sexual forms of fungi?
A) Teleomorphs
45) What are fungi with both asexual and sexual forms?
A) Holomorphs
46) What are the anamorphic fungi?
A) Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
47) What  is the individual organism with both male and female sex organs or plus and minus strains?
A) Monoecious or homothallic
48) What  is the individual organism with either male or female sex organ; or plus or minus strain?
A) Dioecious or heterothallic
49) What are the cells that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametes
50) What are the organs that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametangia
51) What are the male gametangia?
A) Antheridia
52) What are the female gametangia?
A) Oogonia
53) What is the process of union of gametes in which both or any one of the gametes is motile?
A) Planogametic copulation
54) What are the morphologically and physiologically similar gametes?
A) Isogametes
55) What is the process of union between two similar gametes?
A) Isogamy
56) What are the most primitive fungi that produce isogametes?
A) Synchytrium, Plasmodiophora
57) What are the morphologically and physiologically dissimilar male and female gametes?
A) Anisogametes or heterogametes
58) What is the process of union between two dissimilar gametes?
A) Heterogomy or Anisogamy
59) Name the organisms without sexual reproduction.
A) Blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) and fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
65) What is the male sex organ that produces antherozoids?
A) Antheridium
66) What is the female sex organ that produces eggs?
A) Oogonium
67) What is the process of union between male and female gametes?
A) Fertilization or Syngamy
68) What is the process of fusion of cytoplasm of two gametes?
A) Plasmogamy
69) What is the process of fusion of  two nucleii of opposite gametes?
A) Karyogamy
70) What is the thick walled zygote meant to tide over unfavourable conditions?
A) Oospore
71) What is the fusion of the entire contents of the two gametangia
A) Gametangial copulation
72) Name the fungal groups with gametangialcopulation?
A) Phycomycetes and Ascomycetes?
73) Name some fungi that show gametangial copulation.
A) Mucor, Rhizopus,  Entamophthora
74) How are called the gametangia that take part in gametangial copulation?
A)  Antheridium and oogonium
75) What is the fusion of nuclei of an antheridium with that of a oogonium through a pore or a tube?
A) Gametangial contact
76) Name some fungi that show gametangial contact.
A) Albugo, Pythium, Aspergillus, Penicillium
77) What kind of sexual reproduction takes place in Neurospora?
A) Spermatization
78) What are the male gametes in spermatization?
A) Spermatia
79) What is the spermatia producing structure?
A) Pycnidium or Spermagonium
80) Which is the female gametangium in which spermatization takes place?
A) Ascogonium
81) How is called the spermatia-receptive neck of ascogonium?
A) Trichogyne
82) What is the kind of  reproduction in higher fungi where cells or hyphae fuse?
A) Somatogamy
83) What is the process of fusion of two different  hyphae?
A) Hologamy
84) Who coined the terms homothallism and heterothallism?
A) Blakeslee
85) What kind of mycelia are formed due to plasmogamy of + and - hyphae with delayed karyogamy?
A) Dikaryotic mycelium
86) What is the parasexual method of reproduction in fungi?
A) Plasmogamy
87) What are structures that divide dikaryotic cells in basidiomycetes?
A) Clamp connections
88) Who coined the term clamp connection?
A) Hoffman
89) What is the process of coming together of hyphae into an interconnected network for somatogamy? A) Anastomosis
90) What are the fungi with dikaryotic mycelia?
A) Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes
91) What are the sexual spores of phycomycetes fungi?
A) Oospores
92) What are the sexual spores of zygocomycetes fungi?
A) Zygospores
93) What are the sexual spores of asccomycetes fungi?
A) Ascospores
94) What is the gametangium of ascomycetes?
A) Ascus
95) What is the fruiting body of ascomycetes?
A) Ascocarp
96) What is the spherical ascocarp of Aspergillus without opening?
A) Cleistothecium
97) What is the flask shaped  ascocarp of Claviceps with paraphyses and opening?
A) Perithecium
98) What is the saucer shaped ascocarp of Peziza?
A) Apothecium
99) What are the sexual spores of basidiomycetes fungi?
A) Basidiospores
100) What is the gametangium of basidiomycetes?
A) Basidium
101) What is the fruiting body of basidiomycetes?
A) Basidiocarp
102) What are the most common and edible basidiocarps?
A) Mushrooms
103) What are the fungi that show hook formations to produce dikaryotic mycelium?
A) Ascomycetes
104) What are the hooks that facilitate dikaryotization in ascomycetes?
A) Croziers
105) What are the fungi that show  clamp connections to produce dikaryotic mycelium?
A) Basidiomycetes
106) Which is the most common method of regeneration in filamentous algae and fungi?
A) Fragmentation
107) What is the ability of organisms to survive  unfavourable conditions?
A) Perennation
108) What are the perennating structures in fungi?
A) Rhizomorphs and sclerotia
109) What is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state?
A) Life cycle
110) What is the phrase used to describe two multicellular stages in a life cycle?
A) Alternation of generations
111) Which is the simplest and most primitive type of life-cycle?
A) Haplontic life cycle
112) What is the haploid phase of a multicellular organism?
A) Gametophyte
113) What is the diploid phase multicellular organism?
A) Sporophyte
114) What is the only diploid stage in haplontic life cycle? A) Zygote
115) Which is the meiocyte in a haplontic life cycle?
A) Zygote
116)Where does meiosis take place in diplontic life cycle?
A) Before gamete formation in gametophytes
117) What type of life cycle is most common in bacteria and fungi?
A) Haplontic life cycle
 
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