Thursday, 29 September 2016


Bacteria are the prokaryotic organisms with both asexual and sexual modes of reproduction, primarily binary fission and endospore formation to spread their progeny both during favourable and unfavourable conditions.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.


1) What is reproduction?
A) Production of a new "offspring" or individual organisms from parents
2) In which kind of organisms cell division is said to be synonymous with reproduction?
A) Unicellular organisms
3) What is the process of transfer of a portion of genetic material (DNA) from a donor cell to a recipient cell?
A) Genetic recombination or parasexuality
4) What are the different sexual methods of genetic recombination in bacteria?
A) Conjugation,  transformation & transduction
5) What kind of sexual reproduction in bacteria is taken place due to absorption?
A) Transformation
6) What kind of sexual reproduction in bacteria is taken place due to physical contact?
A) Conjugation
7) What kind of sexual reproduction in bacteria is taken place due to a bacteriophage?
A) Transduction
8) How is called the gene transfer due to direct bacterial cell contact?
A) Conjugation
9) Who first reported  conjugation in E.coli?
A) Lederberg and Tatum
10) Who first developed mutant strains of E.coli?
A) Lederberg and Tatum
11) Which organelle forms a conjugation tube between two bacterialcells?
A) Sex pilus
12) What are the extrachromosomal factors in bacteria?
A) Episomes
13) What are the fertility factors in donor or male bacterial cells?
A)  F+ & Hfr
14) Who introduced the term Hfr male?
A) Cavalli
15) What are the fertility factors in recipient or female bacterial cells?
A)  F-
16) By which process F- female bacterium can be converted into F+ male?
A) Conjugation
17) What is the ploidy of the vegetative cells of bacteria?
A) Haploid
18) What is the process by which bacteria can take up exogenous DNA from their environment?
A) Transformation
19) Who first studied transformation in Diplococcus pneumonia?
A) Griffith
20) What are the non-virulent strains of Diplococcos pneumonia?
A) R-type (Rough non-capsulated)
21) What are the virulent strains of Diplococcos pneumonia?
A) S-type (Smooth capsulated)
22) Who demonstrated the transforming principle in pneumonia bacterial transformation as DNA, in mice?
A) Avery, Mac Leod and Mc Carty
23) Who demonstrated virus infection agent as DNA in E.coli bacteria ?
A) Hershey and Chase
24) Which bacteriophage was used by Hershey and Chase?
A) T2 phage
25) What were the radioactive elements used by Hershey and Chase?
A) P32 & P35
26) What is the process by which  genes of one bacterium transferred to the other through a bacteriophage?
A) Transduction
27) Who first reported transduction in Salmonella typhimeurium?
A) Zinder and Lederberg
28) What is the process of permanent carrying of a phage DNA by a bacterium?
A) Lysogeny
29) What is the non-infective virus genome in the host genome?
A) Prophage
30) What is the most common type of reproduction in bacteria?
A) Binary fission
31) What kind of cell division is required for binary fission in prokaryotes?
A) Amitosis
32) How is a single population formed from fission is described?
A) Clones
33) How many daughter cells are formed due to binary fission?
A) Two cells
34) What is the minimum time required for a bacterial population to double?
A) 9.8 minutes
35) What is the time gap between two bacterial divisions?
A) 20-30 minutes
36) In what kind of organisms DNA replication and septum formation occur simultaneously?
A) Prokaryotes  (Bacteria)
37) What are the three wall layers around the bacterial cyst?
A) Exine, intine and mucopeptide wall
38) Name some bacteria that show budding.
A) Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes
39) What is a thick-walled dormant vegetative cell with reserve food in blue green algae or cyanobacteria?
A) Akinetes
40) What are the asexually producrd detached gliding filaments of blue green algae or cyanobacteria?
A) Hormogonia
41) Name a bluegreen alga or cyanobacteria that forms hormogonia.
A) Nostoc
42) What are the structures that separate hormogonia from the main filament?
A) Separation discs
43) What are the bacteria that reproduce through conidia?
A) Actinomycetes and Streptomyces
44) What are the very thick walled spores developed within the cell of bacteria, blue-green algae or diatoms?
A) Endospores
45) What are the dormant structures produced by bacteria to resist extreme physical and chemical conditions like heat, UV radiation and disinfectants?
A) Endospores

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