Thursday, 29 September 2016

REPRODUCTION IN ALGAE (101 Qs)


​Algae are the photosynthetic protists, displaying a wide range of reproductive methods like vegetative, asexual and sexual methods through different kinds of spores and perennating structures.

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What is reproduction?
A) Production of a new "offspring" or individual organisms from parents
2) In which kind of organisms cell division is said to be synonymous with reproduction?
A) Unicellular organisms
3) Name a filamentous alga that exhibit scalariform or lateral conjugation.
A) Spirogyra
4) How is a single population formed from fission is described?
A) Clones
5) How is called the nucleus that is responsible for inheritance from one generation to the other?
A) Generative or germline nucleus
6) What is the process of formation of a thick wall around Amoeba or Euglena  during unfavourable conditions?
A) Encystment
7) What kind of vegetative reproduction is seen in  coenobic algae?
A) Autocolony formation
8) Name some algae that produces daughter colonies.
A) Vaucheria,  Hydrodictyon, Pediastrum
9) What is the vegetative method of reproduction in filamentous algae?
A) Fragmentation
10) Name an alga that shows budding.
A) Protosiphon
11) What is a thick-walled dormant vegetative cell with reserve food in blue green algae, Spirogyra and Cladophora?
A) Akinetes
12) Name the green alga with akinetes.
A) Oedogonium
13) What are the motile asexual spores?
A) Zoospores
14) What are locomotory organs of Zoospores?
A) Flagella
15) What are the most common zoospores?
A) Biflagellate zoospores
16) Name any two algal species which produce multiflagellate zoospores?
A) Oedogonium and Vaucheria
17) Name an alga with a  stephanokontean (multiflagellate) type of zoospores?
A) Oedogonium
18) Name an alga with a compound zoospore?
A) Vaucheria
19) What are the modified non-motile zoospores with a thick wall to tide over unfavourable conditions?
A) Aplanospores
20) Name an alga that produces exospores.
A) Chamaesiphon
21) What is the temporary algal colony of daughter cells surrounded by a mucilagenous envelop?
A) Palmella stage
22) Name some algae that exhibit Palmella stage.
A) Chlamydomonas, Ulothrix
23) What is actually a  Palmella?
A) An algal genus
24) What are the thin mini aplanospores of Chlorella?
A) Autospores
25) What are the very thick walled spores developed within the cell of bacteria, blue-green algae or diatoms?
A) Endospores
26) What are the dormant structures produced by bacteria to resist extreme physical and chemical conditions like heat, UV radiation and disinfectants?
A) Endospores
27) What are the endospores of diatoms?
A) Auxospores
28) What are the spores produced by  carposporophytes of red algae?
A) Carpospores
29) What kind of filaments bear carpospores?
A) Gonimoblast filaments
30) Give the name of a red alga that produces carpospores.
A) Batrachospermum
31) What are the non-sporangial spores of red algae?
A) Neutral spores, Paraspores
32) What are the spores formed in monosporangia of red algae like Batrachospermum, Bangia, Porphyra, Porphyridium, etc?
A) Monospores
33) What are the perennating spores in  Xanthophyceae and Bacillariophyceae?
A) Statospores
34) How are the cysts of Vaucheria called?
A) Hypnospores
35) What is the stage of Vaucheria with a series of hypnospores that looks like an algal filament?
A) Gongrosira stage
36) How is called the organism that produces different types of spores?
A) Pleiomorphic or polymorphic
37) What are the spores that are  formed inside special reproductive structures?
A) Endogenous spores or endospores
38) What  is the individual organism with both male and female sex organs or plus and minus strains?
A) Monoecious or homothallic
39) What  is the individual organism with either male or female sex organ; or plus or minus strain?
A) Dioecious or heterothallic
40) What are the cells that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametes
41) What are the organs that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametangia
42) What are the male gametangia?
A) Antheridia
43) What are the female gametangia?
A) Oogonia
44) What are the male gametes?
A) Antherozoids, spermatozoids or sperms
45) What are the female gametes?
A) Ova or eggs
46) What is the process of union of gametes in which both or any one of the gametes is motile?
A) Planogametic copulation
47) What are the morphologically and physiologically similar gametes?
A) Isogametes
48) What is the process of union between two similar gametes?
A) Isogamy
49) In which species quadriflagellate zygospores are formed due to isogamy?
A) Chlamydomonas
50) What are the algae that never produce zoospores?
A) Red algae  (Rhodophyceae)
51) What are the morphologically and physiologically dissimilar male and female gametes?
A) Anisogametes or heterogametes
52) What is the process of union between two dissimilar gametes?
A) Heterogomy or Anisogamy
53) Name some algae that exhibit anisogamy.
A) Chlamydomonas,  Spirogyra,  Ectocarpus, etc
54) What is the process of union of antherozoid and  egg?
A) Oogamy
55) What is the male sex organ that produces antherozoids?
A) Antheridium
56) What is the female sex organ that produces eggs?
A) Oogonium
57) In which alga antheridia and oogonia are formed in chains?
A) Oedogonium
58) In which alga antheridia and oogonia are formed in conceptacles?
A) Sargassum
59) What kind of algae have spermatia, corogonia and auxiliary cells?
A) Red algae
60) Which alga show highest degree of specialization with respect to sexual structures?
A) Chara
61) What is the process of union between male and female gametes?
A) Fertilization or Syngamy
62) What is the process of fusion of cytoplasm of two gametes?
A) Plasmogamy
63) What is the process of fusion of  two nucleii of opposite gametes?
A) Karyogamy
64) Give some examples of algae showing oogamy.
A) Oedogonium, Vaucheria, Chara, Polysiphonia,
65) What are the amoeboid gametes of Spirogyra?
A) Aplanogametes
66) What is the process of fusion of aplanogametes Spirogyra through a conjugation tube?
A) Aplanogamy or conjugation
67) What is the thick walled zygote meant to tide over unfavourable conditions?
A) Oospore
68) What is the fusion of the entire contents of the two gametangia
A) Gametangial copulation
69) How are called the gametangia that take part in gametangial copulation?
A)  Antheridium and oogonium
70) What is the process of fusion of two vegetative cells of Chlamydomonas?
A) Hologamy
71) What kind of conjugation takes place between two filaments of spirogyra?
A) Scalariform conjunction
72) What kind of conjugation takes place between different cells within a filament of spirogyra?
A) Lateral conjugation 
73) In which organisms autogamy is common?
A) Diatoms, dinoflgellates, Paramecium
74) What is the process of the conversion of female gametes into zygotes without fusion?
A) Parthenogenesis
75) What kind of spores are formed due to parthenogenesis?
A) Azygospores or parthenospores
76) Name the algae showing parthenogenesis.
A) Spirogyra, Oedogonium
77) Which is the most common method of regeneration in filamentous algae and fungi?
A) Fragmentation
78) What is the ability of organisms to survive  unfavourable conditions?
A) Perennation
79) In which algal species tubers or tuberous bulbils and amylum Stars are the perennating structures?
A) Chara
80) What is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state?
A) Life cycle
81) What is the phrase used to describe two multicellular stages in a life cycle?
A) Alternation of generations
82) Which is the simplest and most primitive type of life-cycle?
A) Haplontic life cycle
83) What is the haploid phase of a multicellular organism?
A) Gametophyte
84) What is the diploid phase multicellular organism?
A) Sporophyte
85) What is the only diploid stage in haplontic life cycle? A) Zygote
86) Which is the meiocyte in a haplontic life cycle?
A) Zygote
87) What are the algae that exhibit haplontic life cycle?
A) Chlamydomonas, Ulothrix, Spirogyra, Oedogonium, Chara, etc
88) What is the only haploid stage in diplontic life cycle?
A) Gametes
89)Where does meiosis take place in diplontic life cycle?
A) Before gamete formation in gametophytes
90) Name some algae that exhibit diplontic life cycle?
A) Fucus, Sargassum, Codium, Bryopsis, etc.
91) In what kind of organisms haploid gametophytic generation alternates with diploid sporophytic generation?
A) Haplo-diplontic life cycle
92) How is called the life cycle with two haploid phases and one diploid phase?
A) Haplobiontic life cycle
93) Name some algae that exhibit haplobiontic life cycle?
A) Batrachospermum, Coleochaetae
94) How is called the sporophyte of Batrachospermum that produces carpospores?
A) Carposporophyte
95) How is called the life cycle with two diploid phases and one haploid phase?
A) Diplobiontic life cycle
96) Name an alga that exhibit diplobiontic life cycle?
A) Polysiphonia
97) How is called the sporophyte of Polysiphonia  that produces tetraspores?
A) Tetrasporophyte
98) What kind of algae have three alternation of generations?
A) Red algae  (Rhodophyceae)
99) In what kind of life cycle zygotic meiosis takes place?
A) Haplontic life cycle
100) In what kind of life cycle gametic meiosis takes place?
A) Diplontic life cycle
101) In what kind of life cycle sporic meiosis takes place?
A) Haplodiplontic life cycle

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