Thursday, 29 September 2016

REPRODUCTION IN FUNGI (117 Qs)


Fungi are the cell wall containing heterotrophic multicellular organisms with vegetative, asexual and sexual methods of reproduction.  A myriad kind of spores and hyphae with characteristic colours can be seen in the kingdom.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.




QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What kind of cell division is required for binary fission in eukaryotes?
A) Mitosis
2) How is a single population formed from fission is described?
A) Clones
3) Which fungus reproduces through fission?
A) Yeast
4) What is the vegetative method of reproduction in filamentous algae and fungal hyphae?
A) Fragmentation
5) Which propagation method is used in the laboratory for the inoculation of saprophytic fungus?
A) Hyphal tip method
6) What is the common vegetative method of reproduction in hydra and yeast cells?
A) Budding
7) What are the motile asexual spores in phycomycetes fungi?
A) Zoospores
8) What are locomotory organs of Zoospores?
A) Flagella
9) What are the most common zoospores?
A) Biflagellate zoospores
10) What are the structures that produce zoospores?
A) Zoosporangia
11) What are the lower fungi that produce zoospores?
A) Albugo, Pythium, Phytophthora
12) Name fungi that produce uniflgellate zoospores.
A) Allomyces, Rhizidiomyces
13) Name fungi that produce biflgellate zoospores.
A) Plasmodiophora, Saprolegina
14) What are the spherical propagules formed due to breaking down of hyphae?
A) Oidia
15) What are the two types of thallospores in fungi?
A) Arthrospores & Chlamydospores
16) What are the modified non-motile zoospores with a thick wall to tide over unfavourable conditions?
A) Aplanospores
17) What are the fungi that produce aplanospores?
A) Mucor, Rhizopus
18) What are the two wall layers of sporangiospores in Mucor and Rhizopus?
A) Exosporium and Endosporium
19) What are the common asexual exospores in zygomycetes?
A) Sporangiospores
20) What are the common asexual spores in Ascomycetes & Deuteromycetes?
A) Conidia
21) What are the common exospores in fungi?
A) Conidia
23) What are the hyphae that bear conidia?
A) Conidiophores
24) What are the conidia of Alternaria?
A) Porospores
25) What are the conidia of Aspergillus?
A) Phialospores
26) Name the fungus that produces micro and macroconidia.
A) Fusarium
27) What are the special cells that bear conidia?
A) Sterigmata
28) What are the fungi that bear multicellular conidia?
A) Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
29) What are the different kinds of structures that produce exospores in pustules?
A) Pycnia, aecidia, acervuli, and sporodochia
30) How are called the closely packed parallel plates of Conidiophores?
A) Synnema
31) What are the pitcher shaped structure with ostium with conidiophores?
A) Pycnidium (Pycniospores)
32) What is the saucer-shaped structure with tightly packed conidiophores ?
A) Acervulus
33) What is the saucer-shaped structure with loosely packed conidiophores ?
A) Sporodochia
34) What are the fungi that produce basidiospores in umbrella shaped fruiting bodies?
A) Mushrooms  (Basidiomycetes)
35) What are the asexual spores formed from sporangia?
A) Sporangiospores
36) What are the special fungal hyphae that bear asexual spores in fungi?
A) Sporangiophores & Conidiophores
37) How is called the organism that produces different types of spores?
A) Pleiomorphic or polymorphic
38) What are the different types of spores produced by pleiomorphic rust fungus?
A) Spermatia,  Aeciospores, Uredospores, Teliospores and Basidiospores
39) What are the spores that are directly formed on filaments or hyphae?
A) Exogenous spores or exospores
40) What are the spores that are  formed inside special reproductive structures?
A) Endogenous spores or endospores
41) Name the organisms without sexual reproduction.
A) Blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) and fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
42) What are the fungi without sexual stages?
A) Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
43) What are the asexual forms of fungi?
A) Anamorphs
44) What are the sexual forms of fungi?
A) Teleomorphs
45) What are fungi with both asexual and sexual forms?
A) Holomorphs
46) What are the anamorphic fungi?
A) Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
47) What  is the individual organism with both male and female sex organs or plus and minus strains?
A) Monoecious or homothallic
48) What  is the individual organism with either male or female sex organ; or plus or minus strain?
A) Dioecious or heterothallic
49) What are the cells that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametes
50) What are the organs that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametangia
51) What are the male gametangia?
A) Antheridia
52) What are the female gametangia?
A) Oogonia
53) What is the process of union of gametes in which both or any one of the gametes is motile?
A) Planogametic copulation
54) What are the morphologically and physiologically similar gametes?
A) Isogametes
55) What is the process of union between two similar gametes?
A) Isogamy
56) What are the most primitive fungi that produce isogametes?
A) Synchytrium, Plasmodiophora
57) What are the morphologically and physiologically dissimilar male and female gametes?
A) Anisogametes or heterogametes
58) What is the process of union between two dissimilar gametes?
A) Heterogomy or Anisogamy
59) Name the organisms without sexual reproduction.
A) Blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) and fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
65) What is the male sex organ that produces antherozoids?
A) Antheridium
66) What is the female sex organ that produces eggs?
A) Oogonium
67) What is the process of union between male and female gametes?
A) Fertilization or Syngamy
68) What is the process of fusion of cytoplasm of two gametes?
A) Plasmogamy
69) What is the process of fusion of  two nucleii of opposite gametes?
A) Karyogamy
70) What is the thick walled zygote meant to tide over unfavourable conditions?
A) Oospore
71) What is the fusion of the entire contents of the two gametangia
A) Gametangial copulation
72) Name the fungal groups with gametangialcopulation?
A) Phycomycetes and Ascomycetes?
73) Name some fungi that show gametangial copulation.
A) Mucor, Rhizopus,  Entamophthora
74) How are called the gametangia that take part in gametangial copulation?
A)  Antheridium and oogonium
75) What is the fusion of nuclei of an antheridium with that of a oogonium through a pore or a tube?
A) Gametangial contact
76) Name some fungi that show gametangial contact.
A) Albugo, Pythium, Aspergillus, Penicillium
77) What kind of sexual reproduction takes place in Neurospora?
A) Spermatization
78) What are the male gametes in spermatization?
A) Spermatia
79) What is the spermatia producing structure?
A) Pycnidium or Spermagonium
80) Which is the female gametangium in which spermatization takes place?
A) Ascogonium
81) How is called the spermatia-receptive neck of ascogonium?
A) Trichogyne
82) What is the kind of  reproduction in higher fungi where cells or hyphae fuse?
A) Somatogamy
83) What is the process of fusion of two different  hyphae?
A) Hologamy
84) Who coined the terms homothallism and heterothallism?
A) Blakeslee
85) What kind of mycelia are formed due to plasmogamy of + and - hyphae with delayed karyogamy?
A) Dikaryotic mycelium
86) What is the parasexual method of reproduction in fungi?
A) Plasmogamy
87) What are structures that divide dikaryotic cells in basidiomycetes?
A) Clamp connections
88) Who coined the term clamp connection?
A) Hoffman
89) What is the process of coming together of hyphae into an interconnected network for somatogamy? A) Anastomosis
90) What are the fungi with dikaryotic mycelia?
A) Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes
91) What are the sexual spores of phycomycetes fungi?
A) Oospores
92) What are the sexual spores of zygocomycetes fungi?
A) Zygospores
93) What are the sexual spores of asccomycetes fungi?
A) Ascospores
94) What is the gametangium of ascomycetes?
A) Ascus
95) What is the fruiting body of ascomycetes?
A) Ascocarp
96) What is the spherical ascocarp of Aspergillus without opening?
A) Cleistothecium
97) What is the flask shaped  ascocarp of Claviceps with paraphyses and opening?
A) Perithecium
98) What is the saucer shaped ascocarp of Peziza?
A) Apothecium
99) What are the sexual spores of basidiomycetes fungi?
A) Basidiospores
100) What is the gametangium of basidiomycetes?
A) Basidium
101) What is the fruiting body of basidiomycetes?
A) Basidiocarp
102) What are the most common and edible basidiocarps?
A) Mushrooms
103) What are the fungi that show hook formations to produce dikaryotic mycelium?
A) Ascomycetes
104) What are the hooks that facilitate dikaryotization in ascomycetes?
A) Croziers
105) What are the fungi that show  clamp connections to produce dikaryotic mycelium?
A) Basidiomycetes
106) Which is the most common method of regeneration in filamentous algae and fungi?
A) Fragmentation
107) What is the ability of organisms to survive  unfavourable conditions?
A) Perennation
108) What are the perennating structures in fungi?
A) Rhizomorphs and sclerotia
109) What is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state?
A) Life cycle
110) What is the phrase used to describe two multicellular stages in a life cycle?
A) Alternation of generations
111) Which is the simplest and most primitive type of life-cycle?
A) Haplontic life cycle
112) What is the haploid phase of a multicellular organism?
A) Gametophyte
113) What is the diploid phase multicellular organism?
A) Sporophyte
114) What is the only diploid stage in haplontic life cycle? A) Zygote
115) Which is the meiocyte in a haplontic life cycle?
A) Zygote
116)Where does meiosis take place in diplontic life cycle?
A) Before gamete formation in gametophytes
117) What type of life cycle is most common in bacteria and fungi?
A) Haplontic life cycle
 

REPRODUCTION IN PROTOZOA (48 Qs)


Protozoa are the eukaryotic unicellular organisms with asexual mode of reproduction.  And also show characteristic type of reproduction like autogamy & endomyxis too. Protozoans have better adaptations to survive even in unfavourable conditions.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.




QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What is reproduction?
A) Production of a new "offspring" or individual organisms from parents
2) In which kind of organisms cell division is said to be synonymous with reproduction?
A) Unicellular organisms
3) Which nucleus of Paramecium undergoes amitosis?
A) Macronucleus
4) What kind of cell division is required for binary fission in eukaryotes?
A) Mitosis
5) How is a single population formed from fission is described?
A) Clones
6) How many daughter cells are formed due to binary fission?
A) Two cells
7) Why is Amoeba proteus can be called “immortal”?
A) As it does not die due to natural death on it sown, due to binary fission
8) What is the common type of reproduction in free living protozoans during favourable conditions?
A) Binary fission
9) What is the time gap between two genetations in Amoeba proteus during ideal conditions?
A) 30 minutes to 1 hour
10) What kind of reproduction is common in Euglena?
A) Longitudinal binary fission
11) Euglena divides into two daughter individuals, where one is the plane mirror image of the other. How is this kind of division described?
A) Symmetrogenic division
12) What kind of asexual reproduction takes place in Paramecium?
A) Transverse binary fission
13) What is the ploidy of the macronucleus in Paramecium?
A) Polyploid
14) What is the ploidy of the micronucleus in Paramecium?
A) Diploid
15) How is called the nucleus that is responsible for inheritance from one generation to the other?
A) Generative or germline nucleus
16) Which is the generative nucleus in Paramecium?
A) Micronucleus
17) Which is the non-generative nucleus in Paramecium?
A) Macronucleus
18) By which process micronucleus is divided in Paramecium?
A) Mitosis
19) By which process macronucleus is divided in Paramecium?
A) Amitosis
20) What kind of asexual reproduction is seen in Entamoeba?
A) Binary fission
21) What are the two forms of Entamoeba developed due to binary fission?
A) Minuta forms & Magnaforms
22) What kind of reproduction occurs in Amoeba during unfavourable conditions?
A) Multiple fission & sporulation
23) How are called daughter cells within an Amoeba?
A) Amoebulae
24) How many amoebulae are formed from an Amoeba due to one multiple fission?
A) 500-600
25) What kind of reproduction does take place in an encysted Amoeba or Euglena cell?
A) Multiple fission
26) What is the multiple fission without encystation?
A) Sporulation
27) What are the spores of Amoeba?
A) Pseudopodiospores
28) What is the process of multiple fission in Plasmodium?
A) Schizogony
29) What is the process of  the formation of spirozoites from zygote in Plasmodium? A) Sporogony
30) What is the process of formation of a thick wall around Amoeba or Euglena  during unfavourable conditions?
A) Encystment
31) Name a protozoan with a tetranucleate cyst.
A) Entamoeba histolytica
32) Name a protozoan that exhibits palmelloid stage?
A) Euglena
33) What is actually a  Palmella?
A) An algal genus
34) What are the cells that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametes
35) What is the zygote of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium?
A) Ookinete
36) What is the encysted zygote of the malarial parasite,  Plasmodium?
A) Oocyst
37) Where does sexual reproduction of Plasmodium take place?
A) Midgut of mosquito 
38) What is the fusion of the daughter protoplasts of the same cell without liberation?
A) Autogamy
39) What is the sexual method of reproduction in Paramecium?
A) Conjugation or autogamy
40) What is the chief purpose of autogamy in Paramecium?
A) Rejuvenation of lost vitality due to repeated fissions
41) Which nucleus of Paramecium is involved in conjugation?
A) Micronucleus
42) What kind of cell division is compulsory for conjugation in Paramecium? A) Meiosis
43) What is the sexual method of reproduction in Paramecium aurelia where  internal nuclear reorganization occurs?
A) Endomixis
44) In which organisms autogamy is common?
A) Diatoms, dinoflgellates, Paramecium
45) Which part of the cut Amoeba cell regenerates into a new Amoeba?
A) Nuclear part
46) What is the ability of organisms to survive  unfavourable conditions?
A) Perennation
47) What is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state?
A) Life cycle
48) Which is the simplest and most primitive type of life-cycle?
A) Haplontic life cycle

REPRODUCTION IN ALGAE (101 Qs)


​Algae are the photosynthetic protists, displaying a wide range of reproductive methods like vegetative, asexual and sexual methods through different kinds of spores and perennating structures.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.




QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What is reproduction?
A) Production of a new "offspring" or individual organisms from parents
2) In which kind of organisms cell division is said to be synonymous with reproduction?
A) Unicellular organisms
3) Name a filamentous alga that exhibit scalariform or lateral conjugation.
A) Spirogyra
4) How is a single population formed from fission is described?
A) Clones
5) How is called the nucleus that is responsible for inheritance from one generation to the other?
A) Generative or germline nucleus
6) What is the process of formation of a thick wall around Amoeba or Euglena  during unfavourable conditions?
A) Encystment
7) What kind of vegetative reproduction is seen in  coenobic algae?
A) Autocolony formation
8) Name some algae that produces daughter colonies.
A) Vaucheria,  Hydrodictyon, Pediastrum
9) What is the vegetative method of reproduction in filamentous algae?
A) Fragmentation
10) Name an alga that shows budding.
A) Protosiphon
11) What is a thick-walled dormant vegetative cell with reserve food in blue green algae, Spirogyra and Cladophora?
A) Akinetes
12) Name the green alga with akinetes.
A) Oedogonium
13) What are the motile asexual spores?
A) Zoospores
14) What are locomotory organs of Zoospores?
A) Flagella
15) What are the most common zoospores?
A) Biflagellate zoospores
16) Name any two algal species which produce multiflagellate zoospores?
A) Oedogonium and Vaucheria
17) Name an alga with a  stephanokontean (multiflagellate) type of zoospores?
A) Oedogonium
18) Name an alga with a compound zoospore?
A) Vaucheria
19) What are the modified non-motile zoospores with a thick wall to tide over unfavourable conditions?
A) Aplanospores
20) Name an alga that produces exospores.
A) Chamaesiphon
21) What is the temporary algal colony of daughter cells surrounded by a mucilagenous envelop?
A) Palmella stage
22) Name some algae that exhibit Palmella stage.
A) Chlamydomonas, Ulothrix
23) What is actually a  Palmella?
A) An algal genus
24) What are the thin mini aplanospores of Chlorella?
A) Autospores
25) What are the very thick walled spores developed within the cell of bacteria, blue-green algae or diatoms?
A) Endospores
26) What are the dormant structures produced by bacteria to resist extreme physical and chemical conditions like heat, UV radiation and disinfectants?
A) Endospores
27) What are the endospores of diatoms?
A) Auxospores
28) What are the spores produced by  carposporophytes of red algae?
A) Carpospores
29) What kind of filaments bear carpospores?
A) Gonimoblast filaments
30) Give the name of a red alga that produces carpospores.
A) Batrachospermum
31) What are the non-sporangial spores of red algae?
A) Neutral spores, Paraspores
32) What are the spores formed in monosporangia of red algae like Batrachospermum, Bangia, Porphyra, Porphyridium, etc?
A) Monospores
33) What are the perennating spores in  Xanthophyceae and Bacillariophyceae?
A) Statospores
34) How are the cysts of Vaucheria called?
A) Hypnospores
35) What is the stage of Vaucheria with a series of hypnospores that looks like an algal filament?
A) Gongrosira stage
36) How is called the organism that produces different types of spores?
A) Pleiomorphic or polymorphic
37) What are the spores that are  formed inside special reproductive structures?
A) Endogenous spores or endospores
38) What  is the individual organism with both male and female sex organs or plus and minus strains?
A) Monoecious or homothallic
39) What  is the individual organism with either male or female sex organ; or plus or minus strain?
A) Dioecious or heterothallic
40) What are the cells that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametes
41) What are the organs that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametangia
42) What are the male gametangia?
A) Antheridia
43) What are the female gametangia?
A) Oogonia
44) What are the male gametes?
A) Antherozoids, spermatozoids or sperms
45) What are the female gametes?
A) Ova or eggs
46) What is the process of union of gametes in which both or any one of the gametes is motile?
A) Planogametic copulation
47) What are the morphologically and physiologically similar gametes?
A) Isogametes
48) What is the process of union between two similar gametes?
A) Isogamy
49) In which species quadriflagellate zygospores are formed due to isogamy?
A) Chlamydomonas
50) What are the algae that never produce zoospores?
A) Red algae  (Rhodophyceae)
51) What are the morphologically and physiologically dissimilar male and female gametes?
A) Anisogametes or heterogametes
52) What is the process of union between two dissimilar gametes?
A) Heterogomy or Anisogamy
53) Name some algae that exhibit anisogamy.
A) Chlamydomonas,  Spirogyra,  Ectocarpus, etc
54) What is the process of union of antherozoid and  egg?
A) Oogamy
55) What is the male sex organ that produces antherozoids?
A) Antheridium
56) What is the female sex organ that produces eggs?
A) Oogonium
57) In which alga antheridia and oogonia are formed in chains?
A) Oedogonium
58) In which alga antheridia and oogonia are formed in conceptacles?
A) Sargassum
59) What kind of algae have spermatia, corogonia and auxiliary cells?
A) Red algae
60) Which alga show highest degree of specialization with respect to sexual structures?
A) Chara
61) What is the process of union between male and female gametes?
A) Fertilization or Syngamy
62) What is the process of fusion of cytoplasm of two gametes?
A) Plasmogamy
63) What is the process of fusion of  two nucleii of opposite gametes?
A) Karyogamy
64) Give some examples of algae showing oogamy.
A) Oedogonium, Vaucheria, Chara, Polysiphonia,
65) What are the amoeboid gametes of Spirogyra?
A) Aplanogametes
66) What is the process of fusion of aplanogametes Spirogyra through a conjugation tube?
A) Aplanogamy or conjugation
67) What is the thick walled zygote meant to tide over unfavourable conditions?
A) Oospore
68) What is the fusion of the entire contents of the two gametangia
A) Gametangial copulation
69) How are called the gametangia that take part in gametangial copulation?
A)  Antheridium and oogonium
70) What is the process of fusion of two vegetative cells of Chlamydomonas?
A) Hologamy
71) What kind of conjugation takes place between two filaments of spirogyra?
A) Scalariform conjunction
72) What kind of conjugation takes place between different cells within a filament of spirogyra?
A) Lateral conjugation 
73) In which organisms autogamy is common?
A) Diatoms, dinoflgellates, Paramecium
74) What is the process of the conversion of female gametes into zygotes without fusion?
A) Parthenogenesis
75) What kind of spores are formed due to parthenogenesis?
A) Azygospores or parthenospores
76) Name the algae showing parthenogenesis.
A) Spirogyra, Oedogonium
77) Which is the most common method of regeneration in filamentous algae and fungi?
A) Fragmentation
78) What is the ability of organisms to survive  unfavourable conditions?
A) Perennation
79) In which algal species tubers or tuberous bulbils and amylum Stars are the perennating structures?
A) Chara
80) What is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state?
A) Life cycle
81) What is the phrase used to describe two multicellular stages in a life cycle?
A) Alternation of generations
82) Which is the simplest and most primitive type of life-cycle?
A) Haplontic life cycle
83) What is the haploid phase of a multicellular organism?
A) Gametophyte
84) What is the diploid phase multicellular organism?
A) Sporophyte
85) What is the only diploid stage in haplontic life cycle? A) Zygote
86) Which is the meiocyte in a haplontic life cycle?
A) Zygote
87) What are the algae that exhibit haplontic life cycle?
A) Chlamydomonas, Ulothrix, Spirogyra, Oedogonium, Chara, etc
88) What is the only haploid stage in diplontic life cycle?
A) Gametes
89)Where does meiosis take place in diplontic life cycle?
A) Before gamete formation in gametophytes
90) Name some algae that exhibit diplontic life cycle?
A) Fucus, Sargassum, Codium, Bryopsis, etc.
91) In what kind of organisms haploid gametophytic generation alternates with diploid sporophytic generation?
A) Haplo-diplontic life cycle
92) How is called the life cycle with two haploid phases and one diploid phase?
A) Haplobiontic life cycle
93) Name some algae that exhibit haplobiontic life cycle?
A) Batrachospermum, Coleochaetae
94) How is called the sporophyte of Batrachospermum that produces carpospores?
A) Carposporophyte
95) How is called the life cycle with two diploid phases and one haploid phase?
A) Diplobiontic life cycle
96) Name an alga that exhibit diplobiontic life cycle?
A) Polysiphonia
97) How is called the sporophyte of Polysiphonia  that produces tetraspores?
A) Tetrasporophyte
98) What kind of algae have three alternation of generations?
A) Red algae  (Rhodophyceae)
99) In what kind of life cycle zygotic meiosis takes place?
A) Haplontic life cycle
100) In what kind of life cycle gametic meiosis takes place?
A) Diplontic life cycle
101) In what kind of life cycle sporic meiosis takes place?
A) Haplodiplontic life cycle

REPRODUCTION IN BACTERIA (45 Qs)


Bacteria are the prokaryotic organisms with both asexual and sexual modes of reproduction, primarily binary fission and endospore formation to spread their progeny both during favourable and unfavourable conditions.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.



QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What is reproduction?
A) Production of a new "offspring" or individual organisms from parents
2) In which kind of organisms cell division is said to be synonymous with reproduction?
A) Unicellular organisms
3) What is the process of transfer of a portion of genetic material (DNA) from a donor cell to a recipient cell?
A) Genetic recombination or parasexuality
4) What are the different sexual methods of genetic recombination in bacteria?
A) Conjugation,  transformation & transduction
5) What kind of sexual reproduction in bacteria is taken place due to absorption?
A) Transformation
6) What kind of sexual reproduction in bacteria is taken place due to physical contact?
A) Conjugation
7) What kind of sexual reproduction in bacteria is taken place due to a bacteriophage?
A) Transduction
8) How is called the gene transfer due to direct bacterial cell contact?
A) Conjugation
9) Who first reported  conjugation in E.coli?
A) Lederberg and Tatum
10) Who first developed mutant strains of E.coli?
A) Lederberg and Tatum
11) Which organelle forms a conjugation tube between two bacterialcells?
A) Sex pilus
12) What are the extrachromosomal factors in bacteria?
A) Episomes
13) What are the fertility factors in donor or male bacterial cells?
A)  F+ & Hfr
14) Who introduced the term Hfr male?
A) Cavalli
15) What are the fertility factors in recipient or female bacterial cells?
A)  F-
16) By which process F- female bacterium can be converted into F+ male?
A) Conjugation
17) What is the ploidy of the vegetative cells of bacteria?
A) Haploid
18) What is the process by which bacteria can take up exogenous DNA from their environment?
A) Transformation
19) Who first studied transformation in Diplococcus pneumonia?
A) Griffith
20) What are the non-virulent strains of Diplococcos pneumonia?
A) R-type (Rough non-capsulated)
21) What are the virulent strains of Diplococcos pneumonia?
A) S-type (Smooth capsulated)
22) Who demonstrated the transforming principle in pneumonia bacterial transformation as DNA, in mice?
A) Avery, Mac Leod and Mc Carty
23) Who demonstrated virus infection agent as DNA in E.coli bacteria ?
A) Hershey and Chase
24) Which bacteriophage was used by Hershey and Chase?
A) T2 phage
25) What were the radioactive elements used by Hershey and Chase?
A) P32 & P35
26) What is the process by which  genes of one bacterium transferred to the other through a bacteriophage?
A) Transduction
27) Who first reported transduction in Salmonella typhimeurium?
A) Zinder and Lederberg
28) What is the process of permanent carrying of a phage DNA by a bacterium?
A) Lysogeny
29) What is the non-infective virus genome in the host genome?
A) Prophage
30) What is the most common type of reproduction in bacteria?
A) Binary fission
31) What kind of cell division is required for binary fission in prokaryotes?
A) Amitosis
32) How is a single population formed from fission is described?
A) Clones
33) How many daughter cells are formed due to binary fission?
A) Two cells
34) What is the minimum time required for a bacterial population to double?
A) 9.8 minutes
35) What is the time gap between two bacterial divisions?
A) 20-30 minutes
36) In what kind of organisms DNA replication and septum formation occur simultaneously?
A) Prokaryotes  (Bacteria)
37) What are the three wall layers around the bacterial cyst?
A) Exine, intine and mucopeptide wall
38) Name some bacteria that show budding.
A) Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes
39) What is a thick-walled dormant vegetative cell with reserve food in blue green algae or cyanobacteria?
A) Akinetes
40) What are the asexually producrd detached gliding filaments of blue green algae or cyanobacteria?
A) Hormogonia
41) Name a bluegreen alga or cyanobacteria that forms hormogonia.
A) Nostoc
42) What are the structures that separate hormogonia from the main filament?
A) Separation discs
43) What are the bacteria that reproduce through conidia?
A) Actinomycetes and Streptomyces
44) What are the very thick walled spores developed within the cell of bacteria, blue-green algae or diatoms?
A) Endospores
45) What are the dormant structures produced by bacteria to resist extreme physical and chemical conditions like heat, UV radiation and disinfectants?
A) Endospores

VIRUS REPLICATION (28 Qs)


Viruses, the connecting link between abiotic and biotic entities have no power of reproduction except multiplying themselves in the host cell.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.




QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What kind of organisms never reproduce themselves? 
A) Viruses
2) What kind of organisms need a host cell to reproduce?
A) Viruses
3) What kind of viruses multiply in the nucleus of the host cell?
A) DNA viruses
4) What kind of viruses multiply in the cytoplasm of the host cell?
A) RNA viruses
5) Who classified viruses on the basis of their replication?
A) David Baltimore
6) What are the six steps in the lytic virus cycle?
A) Attachment, penetration, uncoating, replication, assembly, and release.
7) By which process the viral particle gets attached to the host cell membrane?
A) Adsorption
8) What is the process of  injection of virus genome into host cell?
A) Penetration or Transmission
9) By which process the virus is engulfed by the host cell?
A) Endocytosis
10) What are the four kinds of genetic material in viruses?
A) Double-stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA, single-stranded DNA & single-stranded RNA
11) Which cellular process of the lost cell is under the control of lytic viruses?
A) Protein synthesis
12) What kind of RNA is transcribed due to virus infection?
A) mRNA
13) Which enzyme catalyses mRNA formation?
A) RNA translase
14) What is the process of release of virus progeny from the host?
A) Release or shedding
15) What is the last stage of a virus cycle?
A) Release or shedding
16) What is the virus cycle in which the host cell is destroyed to liberate the virus progeny?
A) Lytic cycle
17) What is the virus cycle in which the host cell is not destroyed but the virus DNA remain to replicate along with the host DNA?
A) Lysogenic cycle
18) What are the bacteriophages with lysogenic cycle?
A) Temperate phages
19) Give the name of a phage that shows lysogenic cycle in E.coli?
A) Lambda phage
20) What is the integrated state of virus genome with the bacterial genome?
A) Prophage
4) What kind of viruses multiply in the nucleus of the host cell?
A) DNA viruses
5) What kind of viruses multiply in the cytoplasm of the host cell?
A) RNA viruses
6) Who classified viruses on the basis of their replication?
A) David Baltimore
7) What are the six steps in the lytic virus cycle?
A) Attachment, penetration, uncoating, replication, assembly, and release.
8) By which process the viral particle gets attached to the host cell membrane?
A) Adsorption
9) What is the process of  injection of virus genome into host cell?
A) Penetration or Transmission
10) By which process the virus is engulfed by the host cell?
A) Endocytosis
11) What are the four kinds of genetic material in viruses?
A) Double-stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA, single-stranded DNA & single-stranded RNA
12) Which cellular process of the lost cell is under the control of lytic viruses?
A) Protein synthesis
13) What kind of RNA is transcribed due to virus infection?
A) mRNA
14) Which enzyme catalyses mRNA formation?
A) RNA translase
15) What is the process of release of virus progeny from the host?
A) Release or shedding
16) What is the last stage of a virus cycle?
A) Release or shedding
17) What is the virus cycle in which the host cell is destroyed to liberate the virus progeny?
A) Lytic cycle
18) What is the virus cycle in which the host cell is not destroyed but the virus DNA remain to replicate along with the host DNA?
A) Lysogenic cycle
19) What are the bacteriophages with lysogenic cycle?
A) Temperate phages
20) Give the name of a phage that shows lysogenic cycle in E.coli?
A) Lambda phage
21) What is the integrated state of virus genome with the bacterial genome?
A) Prophage
22) Who demonstrated virus infection agent as DNA in E.coli bacteria ?
A) Hershey and Chase
23) Which bacteriophage was used by Hershey and Chase?
A) T2 phage
24) What were the radioactive elements used by Hershey and Chase?
A) P32 & P35
25) What is the process by which  genes of one bacterium transferred to the other through a bacteriophage?
A) Transduction
26) Who first reported transduction in Salmonella typhimeurium?
A) Zinder and Lederberg
27) What is the process of permanent carrying of a phage DNA by a bacterium?
A) Lysogeny
28) What is the non-infective virus genome in the host genome?
A) Prophage