Friday, 19 August 2016


Protoplasm is living substance which is present in all living cells except viruses. The life and death of a cell or an organisms is exclusively depends on the condition of protoplasm. Coagulated or denatured protoplasm indicates death of that particular cell or an organism.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.


1) Which is the living substance?
A) Protoplasm
2) Which is the fundamental matter out of which all living organisms are made?
A) Protoplasm
3) Who coined the term protoplasm for the substance in an animal embryo?
A) Purkinje
4) Which is the physical basis of life?
A) Protoplasm
5) Who called protoplasm as physical basis of life?
A) Thomas Huxley
6) What kind of organisms do not have protoplasm?
A) Viruses
7) According to whom cytoplasm is nothing but protoplasm?
A) Mohl
8) According to whom  cytoplasm plus nucleoplasm is protoplasm?
A) Strasburger
9) Which is the major component of protoplasm?
A) Water
10) Which is the major organic substance in protoplasm?
A) Proteins
11) What are the major inorganic elements in protoplasm?
A) Carbon, Hydrogen,  Oxygen and Nitrogen
12) What is protoplasm without cell membrane?
A) Protoplast
13) How is called protoplasm between cell membrane and nucleus?
A) Cytoplasm
14) What is protoplasm without nucleus and vacuoles?
A) Cytoplasm
15) What is peripheral protoplasm around a big vacuole in a mature plant cell?
A) Primordial Utricle
16) Which part of the cell behaves like glass?
A) Cytoplasm
17) Who coined the term  cytoplasm?
A) Kolliker
18) How is called the protoplasm inside the nucleus?
A) Nucleoplasm
19) What kind of organisms do not have nucleoplasm?
A) Prokaryotes
20) Who coined the term nucleoplasm?
A) Van Beneden
21) What is chromatoplasm?
A) Plastids
22) What is cytoplasm without organelles and inclusions?
A) Cytosol, hyaloplasm, kinoplasm or cytoplasmic matrix
23) What is the outer gel like cytoplasm?
A) Ectoplast, Ectoplasm or Plasmal gel
24) What is the inner sol part of cytoplasm?
A) Endoplast, Ectoplasm or Plasma Sol
25) What is the cell cortex?
A) Ectoplasm
26) How is called the perpetual motion of endoplasm?
A) Cyclosis or cytoplasmic or protoplamic  streaming
27) What are the two types of cyclosis?
A) Rotation and circulation
28) How is called the unidirectional flow of cytoplasm?
A) Rotation
29) How is called the flow of cytoplasm in different directions?
A) Circulation
30) What are the membranous structures in cytoplasm?
A) Organelles
31) What are the double membranous organelles in the cell?
A) Nucleus,  mitochondria and plastids  (chloroplasts)
32) What are the single membranous organelles in the cell?
A) Endoplasmic reticulum,  Golgi apparatus,  Lysosomes,  Peroxisomes,  Glyoxysomes,  Sphaerosomes, Vacuoles, etc
33) What are the non-membranous organelles in the cell?
A) Ribosomes,  Nucleolus
34) Which major metabolic activity does occur in cytosol?
A) Glycolysis
35) Which is the extra-cytoplasmic organelle?
A) Nucleus
36) What are the metabolically  inactive byproducts in cytoplasm?
A) Deuteroplasts or organic inclusions
37) What are the crystalline inclusions in cytoplasm?
A) Calcium oxalate & Silicon dioxide
38) What is the storage inclusion in animal cells?
A) Glycogen
39) What is the storage inclusion in plant cells?
A) Starch
40) What are the cells with abundant fats?
A) Adipocytes
41) What is the living part of the protoplasm?
A) Bioplasm
42) What is the non-living part of the protoplasm?
A) Ergastic substances
43) What are the different ergastic substances?
A) Crystals, oil drops, gums, tannins, resins, etc.
44) What are the main ergastic substances of plant cells?
A) Cellulose and starch
45) What is the chief substance in cell walls?
A) Cellulose
46) What are the different protective layers in or on the cell wall?
A) Waxes, suberin, and cutin
47) What is a group of calcium oxalate crystals in plant cells?
A) Druse
48) What are the needle like crystals of calcium oxalate bundles in  a plant cell?
A) Raphides
49) What are the calcium carbonate bunches in rubber plant cells?
A) Cystoliths
50) What are the cells with cystoliths?
A) Lithocysts
51) Who called protoplasm as sarcode?
A) Felix Dujardin
52) Who gave the protoplasm theory?
A) Max Schultz
53) What is the physical nature of protoplasm?
A) Multiphased complex system
54) What is the basis for colloidal nature of cytoplasm?
A) Organic solutes such as glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, hormones and enzymes.
55) Who gave the  granular theory of protoplasm?
A) Altmann
56) Who gave the alveolar theory of protoplasm?
A) Butchlli
57) Who gave the fibrillar theory of protoplasm?
A) Flemming
58) Who gave the reticular  theory of protoplasm?
A) Klein, Comoy
59) What is the process of conversion of cytoplasm from gel into sol state?
A) Solation
60) What is the process of conversion of cytoplasm from sol into gell state?
A) Gelation
61) What is the zigzag  motion of colloidal particles in cytoplasm?
A) Brownian movement
62) What is the physical nature of Protoplasm?
A) Optically homogenous, elastic, colourless, jelly like, semi-transparent to transparent and semi-viscous substance.
64) What is protoplasmic response to stimulus?
A) Irritability
65) Who explained the colloidal structure of protoplasm?
A) Fisher and Hardy
66) What kind of cytoplasmic movement is distinct in the cells of  Hydrilla and  Vallisneria?
A) Rotation
67) What kind of cytoplasmic movement is seen in staminal hairs of Tradescantia?
A) Circulation
68) What kind of chemical forces bind protoplasmic particles?
A) Vanderwaal’s forces
69) What is the fundamental basis for mechanical behaviour of cytoplasm?
A) Gel state
70) What will happen to the electrocuted protoplasm?
A) Denaturation (Coagulation)
71) What is the pH of cytoplasm?
A) 7.0 - 7.4
72) What is the major part of intracellular fluid?
A) Cytosol
73) What is the liquid part of the cytoplasm?
A) Cytosol
74) Who coined the term Cytosol?
A) H. A. Lardy
75) In what kind of cells cell sap is the main component; not cytoplasm?
A) Plant cells
76) Which organelle divides the cytoplasm into different compartments?
A) Endoplasmic Reticulum

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