Thursday, 18 August 2016

NUCLEUS (100 Qs)

The central head office of any eukaryotic cell is the nucleus. Well organised nucleus with chromatin reticulum or chromosomes is the characteristic feature of eukaryotic cells, the feature that is lacking in prokaryotes.

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1) Who discovered nucleus?
A) Robert Brown
2) Who proved nucleus as a storehouse of hereditary information?
A) Hammerling
3) What was the experimental organism of Hammerling?
A) Acetabularia
4) What is Acetabularia?
A) A green marine alga
5) How do you call a cell with a single nucleus?
A) Monokaryotic cell
6) Which group of fungi show dikaryotic mycelia?
A) Basidiomycetes
7) What are the anucleate cells in the human body?
8) What are the anucleate cells in plants?
A) Sieve tubes
9) Which species of paramecium is binucleate?
A) Paramecium caudatum
10) Which species of paramecium is trinucleate?
A) Paramecium aurelia
11) How is called the multinucleate body of slimemolds?
A) Plasmodium
12) What is a multinucleate animal cell?
A) Syncitium
13) What is a multinucleate plant cell?
A) Coenocyte
14) Which is the largest cell component in an animal cell?
A) Nucleus
15) Which is the largest cell component in a mature plant cell?
A) Vacuole
16) Which is the master organelle?
A) Nucleus
17) Which is the biggest component of a nucleus?
A) Non-basic proteins
18) What is biggest component of a nucleus?
A) Proteins
19) What is meant by karyon?
A) Nucleus
20) What is meant by a Karyotype?
A) a total set of chromosomes in a nuu
21) What is meant by karyotheca?
A) Nuclear Envelope
22) What is the space between two nuclear membranes?
A) Perinuclear space
23) What are the associated structures of nuclear envelope?
A) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum & Ribosomes
24) Which part of the nucleus contain parts like diaphragm, depraved, annuli, blebs and micropore?
A) Nuclear pore
25) What is the facilitator of substances through a nuclear pore?
A) Nucleoporins
26) What is the colloidal fluid inside the nucleus?
A) Nucleoplasm or nuclear sap
27) What meant by karyolymph?
A) Nucleoplasm or nuclear sap
28) What are the chief enzymes of nucleoplasm?
A) DNA polymerase,  nucleosidase, phosphorylase, ribonuclear synthetase, nucleotide synthetase
29) How is called the proteinaceous fibrillar layer inner to inner nuclear membrane?
A) Nuclear lamina
30) What are the proteins of nuclear lamina?
A) Lamins
31) What is the maintainer of nuclear shape?
A) Nuclear lamina
32) Who discovered nuclear lamina?
A) Harris & James
33) What is the  fibrillar network spread all over the nucleus?
A) Chromatin reticulum
34) Who discovered chromatin?
A) Flemming
35) What is the chemical nature of chromatin?
A) DNA-Histone complex
36) What is the loosely coiled, lightly stained, active part of chromatin?
A) Euchromatin
37) What is the highly coiled, darkly  stained, inactive part of chromatin?
A) Heterochromatin
38) Who was the first to differentiate euchromatin & heterochromatin?
A) Heitz
39) What are the large granular parts of heterochromatin?
A) Karyosomes
40) What kind of heterochromatin is universal?
A) Constitutive heterochromatin
41) What kind of chromatin is formed only to inactivate certain genes?
A) Facultative heterochromatin?
42) What is the Barr body in oocytes of human beings?
A) Facultative heterochromatin
43) What is the core of the nucleosome?
A) Octomer of 8 Histones
44) What are the nucleosomal histones?
A) H2A, H2B, H3 & H4
45) How many DNA base pairs comprise a nucleosome?
A) 200
46) What is the connecting link between two Nucleosomes?
A) Linker DNA
47) What is the folded nucleosome chains?
A) Chromatin
48) What is the folded chromatin?
A) Chromosome
49) What is the spherical non-membranous structure in the nucleus?
A) Nucleolus
50) Who discovered nucleolus?
A) Fontana
51) Who coined the term nucleolus?
A) Bowman
52) What is NOR?
A) Nucleolar Organiser Region
53) Where is the nucleolus attached to the chromatin?
54) What are fibrils in a nucleolus?
55) What is the amorphous portion of the nucleolus?
A) Parse Granulosa
56) What is the fibrillar portion of the nucleolus?
A) Parse Fibrosa
57) Which kind of ribosomes are formed in nucleolus?
58) Which is the ribosomal factory?
A) Nucleolus
59) What is the compacted DNA structure in a prokaryotic cell?
A) Genophore or nucleiod
60) What are replaced by histones in prokaryotic DNA packing?
A) Polyamines
66) Which part of the cell controls the gene expression?
A) Nucleus
67) What is the mechanical support to the nucleus?
A) Nuclear lamina
68) Where is the assembly of ribosomes taken place?
A) Nucleolus
69) What is the first organelle to be discovered?
A) Nucleus
70) Who was Robert Brown?
A) Scottish botanist
71) In what kind of plants Robert Brown discovered the nucleus?
A) Orchids
72) Who called the nucleus as cytoblast?
A) Matthias Schleiden
73) What percentage of a mammalian cell is the nucleus?
A) 10%
74) Which part of the nuclear pore extends into the Nucleolplasm?
A) Nuclear basket
75) What are the transporting factors in nuclear pores?
A) Karyopherins
76) What kind of karyopherins mediate the movement of substances into the nucleus?
A) Importins
77) What kind of karyopherins mediate the movement of substances out of the nucleus?
A) Exportins
78) What are the two kinds of lemins on outer surface of nuclear lamina?
A)  Emerin and Nesprin
79) Which nuclear protein deficiency causes pre-mature ageing in human beings?
A) Lemin
80) What is the average length of a nuclear DNA in human cells?
A) 2M
81) Where is extranuclear DNA is present in animal cells?
A) Mitochondria
82) What kind of chromatin is present in centromeres and telocentres?
A) Heterochromatin
83) What is the suborganelle of the nucleus?
A) Nucleolus
84) What are the largest structures transported through nuclear pores?
A) Ribosomal Subunits
85) Where are Cajal bodies, Gemini bodies, PIKA, PML bodies, para-speckles, and splicing-speckles present?
A) Nucleus
86) Which is the dynamic centre of the cell?
A) Nucleus
87) What is the first step in gene expression?
A) Transcription of RNA from DNA
88) Which is the site of replication and transcription?
A) Nucleus
89) Which is the site of translation?
A) Ribosomes
90) Which enzyme unwinds the double-stranded DNA molecule?
A) Helicase
91) Which enzyme  synthesizes the  RNA molecule?
A) RNA polymerase
92) What is  the function of Ran-GTP nuclear transport cycle?
A) Transport of RNA and proteins across nuclear membranes
93) What is the process of programmed cell death?
A) Apoptosis
94) What is the end of the prophase of mitosis?
A) Dissolution of nuclear envelope
95) In what kind of mitosis the nuclear envelope remains intact?
A) Closed mitosis
96) In what kind of mitosis the nuclear envelope is dissolved?
A) Open mitosis
97) What kind of centrosomes lead to closed mitosis?
A) Intranuclear centrosomes
98) What are the different organisms exhibiting closed mitosis?
A) Dinoflgeates, ciliates, sporozoans, yeasts, fungi, etc
99) Name the intestinal parasite with binucleate conditions?
A) Giardia
100) What are the syncitial or multinucleate cells in human beings?
A) Myocytes (muscle fibrils)

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