Tuesday, 16 August 2016

MITOCHONDRIA (77 Qs)


The respiratory organelles in the eukaryotic cells are called mitochondria. They are also called the power houses of the cells as they supply energy in the form of ATP for all metabolic activities in the cell and also in the overall organism.

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) Who called mitochondria as "bioblasts"?
A) Richard Altmann
2) Who coined the term "mitochondria"?
A) Carl Benda
3) Which dye is used to stain mitochondria for observing under compound microscope?
A) Janus Green
4) Who discovered Janus green as a supra vital stain for mitochondria?
A) Leonor Michaelis
4) Who discovered mitochondria in plant cells?
A) Friedrich Meves
5) In which plant mitochondria were first discovered?
A)  White waterlily
6) What is the scientific name of water lily?
A) Nymphaea alba
7) Who first related mitochondria  with cell respiration?
A) Benjamin F. Kingsbury
8) Who discovered cytochromes of  the respiratory chain?
A) David Keilin
9) Who first developed the concept of phosphate bonds of ATP being a form of energy in cellular metabolism?
A) Fritz Albert Lipmann
10) Who introduced tissue fractionation technique?
A) Albert Claude
11) Who discovered  mitochondria as the sites of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes?
A) Eugene Kennedy and Albert Lehninger
12) Who invented electron microscope?
A) Knoll & Ruska
13) Which apparatus is used to study the ultrastructure of mitochondria?
A) Electron Microscope
14) Who first used the popular term "powerhouse of the cell" for mitochondria?
A) Philip Siekevitz
15) What were mitochondria according to the endosymbiotic hypothesis?
A) Prokaryotic cells
16) What is the genome of a mitochondrion?
A) Double stranded circular  DNA
17) What are first organisms to possess a proto-mitochondrion?
A)  Rickettsia.
18) What were the ancestors of mitochondria?
A) Alpha proteobacteria
19) What were the  common ancestors of mitochondria?
A) SAR11 clad of bacteria
20) What kind of ribosomes are present in mitochondria?
A) 70S ribosomes
21) Who popularized the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of mitochondria?
A)  Lynn Margulis
22) Name the eukaryotic organisms without mitochondria?
A) Monocercomonoides, mammalian RBC, anaerobic protozoans.
23) How many membranes enclose a mitochondrion?
A) 2
24) What does lie between two mitochondrial membranes?
A) Peri-mitochondrial space
25) How are inner invaginations or infoldings of the inner mitochondrial membrane described?
A) Cristae mitochondriales
26) What is enclosed by inner mitochondrial membrane?
A) Matrix
27) Which respiratory process does occur in mitochondrial matrix?
A)  Citric acid cycle or Kreb's cycle
28) What will happen to the cell if the outer mitochondrial membrane is disrupted?
A) Cell death occurs
29) What is MAM?
A) Mitochondria-Associated ER-Membrane
30) Which mitochondrial membrane contains porins?
A) Outer Mitochondrial Membrane
30) Who discovered mitochondria?
A) Kolliker
31) What is the chief purpose of cristae formations?
A) To increase surface area for electron transport system
32) Which organelles generate power in cells?
A) Mitochondria
33) What is the energy currency of the cell?
A) ATP
34) What kind of respiration is performed by mitochondria?
A) Aerobic respiration
35) What are the cellular structures that facilitate the mitochondrial movements?
A) Microtubules
36) Name the synthetic dyes  used to study mitochondria under fluorescent microscope.
A) MitoTracker Red & Cyan blue
37) Name the organelle within other organelles.
A) Plastidial and mitochondrial ribosomes
38) Which technique is used to study the structure and function of organelles in living cells?
A) Fluorescence microscopy
39) Where is ATPase located in mitochondria?
A) Inner membrane including Cristae
40) What are the sites of cellular respiration?
A) Mitochondria
41) What are membranous infoldings of bacteria that mimic mitochondria in function?
A) Mesosomes
42) Which organelle powers the tail to take sperm up to the egg?
A) Mitochondria
43) Which part of the sperm contains mitochondria?
A) Middle-piece
44) What kind of inheritance is found in mitochondria?
A) Maternal inheritance  (from egg)
45) What are the cell organelles they have their own genomes?
A) Mitochondria & Chloroplasts
46) Where are electron  transport proteins located in mitochondria?
A) Inner mitochondrial membrane
47) What are the protein based pores on the outer mitochondrial membrane?
A) Porins
48) Where does oxidative phosphorylation take place?
A) Mitochondria  (inner membrane)
49) Where does photophosphorylation take place? 
A) Chromoplast (thylakoid membrane)
50) What is the major source of information for synthesizing mitochondrial proteins?
A) Nuclear genes
51) What is the common method of multiplication of mitochondria?
A) Binary fission
52) What kind of cells possess more mitochondria?
A) Muscle cells
53) What are the intestinal structures compared to cristae mitochondriales?
A) Microvilli
54) What are the substrate molecules being digested in mitochondrial matrix?
A) Pyruvate & Acetyl-coenzyme A
55) What are the sites of oxygen reduction in cells?
A) Mitochondria
56) What are the two organelles that regulate calcium ion concentration in cells?
A) Mitochondria & Endoplasmic Reticulum
57) Which enzyme is helpful in transporting molecules across outer mitochondrial membranes?
A) Translocase
58) What kind of cells have mitochondria to the one fifth of their volume?
A) Liver cells ( Hepatocytes)
59) What are the organelles that are responsible for more life expectancy in females?
A) Mitochondria
60) What are the common mitochondrial diseases?
A) Autism, myopathy,  schizophrenia, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, cardiovascular diseases, retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetes mellitus.
61) Which organelle fixes programmed cell death  (apoptosis or atresia of eggs)?
A) Mitochondria
62) What are the mitochondria of muscle fibres (myofibrils)?
A) Sarcosomes
63) What are the respiratory units on inner mitochondrial membranes?
A) Oxysomes, Elementary particles, Fundamental particles or F1 particles
64) Where is proton channel present in oxysomes?
A) Fo subunit
65) Where are roter and stator present in mitochondria?
A) Oxysomes or F1 particles
66) What are formed in oxysomes due to electron transport?
A) NADP, ADP and FAD
67) How many times arerobic respiration is more efficient than anaerobic respiration?
A) 13 times
68) What are the other names of mitochondria?
A) Chondriomes or chondrosomes
69) What are the organelles within organelles?
A) Mitochondria and chloroplasts
70) What are the three parts of F1 Particles?
A) Headpiece,  Stalk and Base
71) Who discovered oxysomes?
A) HF Morgan
72) Name the chemical used to remove outer mitochondrial membrane?
A) Digitonin
73) How are mitochondria without outer mitochondrial membrane described?
A) Mitoplasts
74) Where is coupling enzyme present?
A) Oxysomes
75) What is the outer chamber of mitochondria?
A) Perimitochondrial space
76) What is the inner chamber of mitochondria?
A) Matrix
77) Where is mtDNA  present?
A) Mitochondrial Matrix

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