Friday, 26 August 2016

CELL CYCLE (215 Qs)


The cell is the structural and functional unit of all organisms. The growth and development of an organism depend on the growth and development of the cell. The as an entity shows its own life cycle on par with the life cycle of the organism to which it belongs.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.


QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What is the series of events in a cell that tames place from one division to the other?
A) Cell cycle
2) What is the way to avoid ageing or senescence in living organisms?
A) Cell division
3) By which process a certain degree of plasticity and immortality is provided to an organism?
A) Cell division
4) What is the direct cell division?
A) Amitosis
5) What is the indirect cell division?
A) Mitosis
6) What is the most primitive form of cell division?
A) Amitosis
7) What is the chief method of multiplication and growth in unicellular organisms?
A) Amitosis
8) Which is the most common type of amitosis in unicellular organisms?
A) Fission (Binary fission)
9) What are the three periods of a cell cycle in bacteria?
A) B, C, D phases
10) When do DNA replication and cell division take place in bacteria?
A) D phase
11) What are the two periods  of a cell cycle in an eukaryotic cell?
A) Interphase & Cell division phase
12) What is the phase of non-apparent cell division or resting phase?
A) Interphase
13) What is the metabollically most active phase of the cell cycle?
A) Interphase
14) Who referred interphase as the energy phase?
A) Berril and Huskins
15) What is the preparatory phase in the cell cycle?
A) Interphase
16) What is the inter-mitotic phase?
A) Interphase
17) What percentage of the cell cycle  is the interphase?
A) 90%
18) What are the three sub-phases of interphase?
A) G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase
19) What are the gap phases of the cell cycle?
A) G1 & G2 phases
20) What is the synthetic phase of the cell cycle?
A) S phase
21) What is the point at which the previous stage is stopped and the next stage of the cell cycle starts?
A) Restriction point
22) Who discovered cleavage in animal cells?
A) Prevost and Dumas
23) What are the two types of cell divisions in eukaryotic cells?
A) Mitosis & Meiosis
24)Who discovered mitosis? A) W Flemming
25) Which is the somatic cell division?
A) Mitosis
26) In what kind of cell division daughter cells are formed with similar sizes and chromosomal sets?
A) Mitosis
27) In which phase of the cell cycle RNAs are produced?
A) G1 phase
28) In which phase DNA replication occurs?
A) S phase
29) In which phase of the cell cycle organelles are produced?
A) G1 & G2 pleases
30) In which phase of the cell cycle centrioles and mitotic spindle tubules are formed?
A) G2 phase
31) What is the period of intense synthesis and growth in a cell cycle?
A) Interphase
32) What are the two periods of cell division?
A) Karyokinesis & Cytokinesis
33) Who discovered karyokinesis and cytokinesis as two phases of a cell division?
A) Remak and Kolliker
34) Who introducrd the term karyokinesis?
A) Schleicher
35) Who introduced the term cytokinesis?
A) Whiterman
36) What percentage of the cell cycle is mitosis?
A) 10%
37) What are the four phases of karyokinesis?
A) Prophase, metaphase,  anaphase & telophase
38) What is the time period of a bacterial cell cycle?
A) 20 minutes
39) What is the time period of a cell cycle in onion root tip cells?
A) 20 hours
40) What is the time period human cell cycle in culture at 37°C?
A) 20 hours
41) What is the time period required for a human cell to complete  one mitotic phase in culture at 37°C?
A) 1 hour
42) What are the never dividing cells in the human body?
A) Nerve cells or neurons
43) Which is the longest mitotic phase?
A) Prophase
44) In which phase of mitotic division chromosomes appear?
A) Prophase
45) In which mitotic phase chromatin reticulum reappear?
A) Telophase
46) What is the point of attachment of chromatids?
A) Centromere
47) In which mitotic phase disorganization of the nucleus takes place?
A) Prophase
48) In which mitotic phase reorganization of the nucleus takes place?
A) Telophase
49) Which phase is the reverse of prophase?
A) Telophase
50) When do spindle fibres start appearing in mitosis?
A) Metaphase
51) What is the epicentre of spindle formation during cell division?
A) Centriole
52) Which cell organelle is meant for organizing spindle fibres?
A) Centriole
53) Which cell organelles are the basic components of spindle fibres?
A) Microtubules
54) How many centrioles are required per a cell to form spindle fibres?
A) Two
55) How is called a centriole with radiating microtubules at the helm of spindle fibres?
A) Aster
56) How do you call the mitosis with asters?
A) Astral mitosis
57) How do you call the mitosis without asters?
A) Anastral mitosis
58) In what kind of cells astral mitosis is common?
A) Animal cells
59) In what kind of cells anastral mitosis is common? A) Plant cells
60) Why does anastral mitosis take place in plant cells?
A) Due to absence of centrioles
61) What is the junction of spindle fibres and chromatids ?
A) Centromere
62) What is the mode of arrangement centromeres on the equatorial plate?
A) Radial
63) At which stage of cell division the equatorial plate is broken?
A) Anaphase
64) Which is the shortest phase of mitosis?
A) Anaphase
65) When does the division of centromeres take place?
A) Anaphase
66) When do chromosomes reach opposite poles?
A) Anaphase
67) What are the different shapes of chromosomes during anaphase?
A) V, J & I shaped
68) What are V-shaped chromosomes?
A) Metacentric or isobranchial chromosomes
69) What are J-shaped chromosomes?
A) Subetacentric or  heterobranchial chromosomes
70) What are I-shaped chromosomes?
A) Acrocentric chromosomes
71) What is the division of the nucleus?
A) Karyokinesis
72) What is the division of  cytoplasm?
A) Cytokinesis
73) In what kind of cells cytokinesis stars with furrows?
A) Animal cells
74) In what kind of cells cytokinesis  is through a cell plate formation?
A) Plant cells
75) What is the equatorial plate impregnated with spindle fibres in plants?
A) Phragmoplast
76) Which cell organelle secretes cell wall components?
A) Golgi apparatus
77) Which cell organelle is required to form pasmodesmata?
A) Endoplasmic Reticulum
78) What is the extension of endoplasmic reticulum in plasmodesmata?
A) Desmotubule
79) What kind of cell division leads to genetic stability?
A) Mitosis
80) What kind of reproduction occurs due to mitosis?
A) Asexual reproduction
81) What kind of reproduction occurs due to meiosis?
A) Sexual reproduction
82) What is the basis for growth,  repair and replacement of somatic cells?
A) Mitosis
83) Which is the equational or homoeotypic cell division?
A) Mitosis
84) Which is the reduction or heterotypic cell division?
A) Meiosis
85) In what kind of cell division one karyokinesis and one cytokinesis occur?
A) Mitosis
86) In what kind of cell division two karyokineses and one cytokinesis occur?
A) Meiosis
87) When is the chromosome number reduced to half during meiosis?
A) Meiosis I (Anaphase I)
88) What are the five subphases of meiosis I in sequence?
A) Leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene & diakinesis
89) Which is the reduction phase of the meiosis?
A) Meiosis-I
90) Which is the equational phase of the meiosis?
A) Meiosis-II
91) Which phase of meiosis is similar to that of mitosis?
A) Meiosis-II
92) In which subphase of meiosis chromomeres appear over chromosomes?
A) Leptotene
93) What are the similar chromosomes?
A) Homologous chromosomes
94) What is the pairing of homologous chromosomes? A) Synapsis
95) Which protein binds sister chromatids together?
A) Cohesin
96) Which enzyme separtes sister chromatids?
A) Separase
97) When does synapsis of homologous chromosomes take place?
A) Leptotene
98) How are the paired homologous chromosomes called?
A) Bivalents
99) When are chromosomal bivalents and tetrads are formed?
A) Zygotene stage
100) Which is the longest subphase of prophase-I?
A) Pachytene
101) When does crossing over take place?
A) Pachytene stage
102) When does new gene combinations occur during meiosis?
A) Pachytene stage
103) Which process leads to new gene combinations in a chromosome?
A) Crossing over
104) What are X-shaped structures formed after crossing over of homologous chromosomes?
A) Chiasmata
105) When does chiasmata  apper in meiosis?
A) Diplotene stage
106) When does terminalization of chiasmata take place?
A) Diakinesis
107) In what kind of cell division centromeres divide?
A) Mitosis & Meiosis-II
108) In what kind of cell division centromeres do not divide?
A) Meiosis-I
109) Which is the meiotic mitosis?
A) Meiosis-II
110) In what kind of cell division genetically similar daughter cells are formed?
A) Mitosis
111) In which type of cell division centromeres lie on the equator to let chromosomal arms face the poles?
A) Mitosis & Meiosis-II
112) In which type of cell division centromeres lie  towards the poles to let chromosomal arms face the equator?
A) Meiosis-I
113) What kind of cell division leads to the formation of haploid gametes?
A) Meiosis
114) How many daughter cells are formed after mitosis?
A) 2
115) How many daughter cells are formed after meiosis?
A) 4
116) What is the principal means of reproduction in unicellular organisms?
A) Cell division
117) In what kind of cell division the daughter cells have same ploidy?
A) Mitosis
118) At what stage of cell cycle histone proteins are formed?
A) S phase
119) In which kind of cell division chromosomal dyads appear along the equator?
A) Mitosis & Meiosis-II
120) In which kind of cell division chromosomal tetrads appear along the equator?
A) Meiosis-I
121) What kind of cell division leads to the formation of pollen dyads or tetrads?
A) Meiosis
122) In which phase of cell division random distribution of chromosomes take place?
A) Anaphase
123) Which type of cell division occur in all types of cells?
A) Mitosis
124) In what kind of mitosis the nuclear envelope is broken?
A) Open mitosis
125) In what kind of mitosis the nuclear envelope is not broken?
A) Closed mitosis
126) Name a multicellular fungus with closed type of mitosis?
A) Aspergillus nidulans
127) Name a unicellular fungus with closed type of mitosis?
A) Saccharomyces cerevisiae
128) What is the process of replication of DNA during S phase without the subsequent completion of mitosis and cytokinesis. ?
A) Endoreplication
129) What is the result of endoreplication followed by karyokinesis but not cytokinesis in fungi and slime molds?
A) Coenocyteformation
130) What will be the result of repeated replication of DNA without forming new nuclei in telophase?
A) Polyploidy & Polyteny
131) Which process leads to the formation of "giant" chromosomes?
A) Polyteny
132) How many DNA strands does a Polytene chromosome in salivary glands of Drosophila  possess?
A) 2048
133) What is the phenomenon of occurrence of more than two sets of chromosomes in a cell?
A) Polyploidy
134) Where are the polyploid cells occur in human beings?
A) Hepatocytes & megakaryocytes
135) What are the giant human cells that are formed due to seven S phases with nucleus containing ploidy 128n chromosomes?
A) Megakaryocytes
136) What are formed due to the fragmentation of megakaryocytes?
A) Blood platelets
137) Which hormone regulates the cell cycle?
A) Cyclin
138) Which enzyme regulates the cell cycle?
A) Kinase
139) Who got Nobel Prize for the discovery of cyclin and CDKs?
A) Hartwell, Hunt, and Nurse
140) What are CDKs?
A) Cyclin-dependent kinases
141) What are the major control switches for the cell cycle?
A) Cyclin and CDKs
142) What is the anaphase-promoting complex (APC)? A) Cyclosome
143) What is the result of mitosis followed by too many or too few chromosomes?
A) Aneuploidy
144) What are the five phases of occasionally dividing cells?
A) G1, G0, S, G2 & M phase
145) How is called the G0  stage cell?
A) Quiescent cell
146) What are the common quiescent cells in human body?
A) Erythrocytes, neurons, myocytes, adipocytes,  etc
147) What are the common quiescent cells in human body that renter G1 phase from G0 phase after getting stimulus?
A) T- & B- lymphocytes
148) What are the only two phases in the cell cycle of quiescent cells?
A) G1 & G0 phases
149) Which mutation is the most frequent cause for cancer?
A) p53 mutation
150) Which disease is caused due to non-regulation of the cell cycle?
A) Cancer
151) What are the cancer causing genes?
A) Oncogenes
152) What is meant by uncontrolled, abnormal growth or division of cells?
A) Cancer
153) What is the abnormal growth of a cell?
A) Hypertrophy
154) What is the abnormal growth of a tissue due to uncontrolled cell divisions?
A) Hyperplasia
155) What is the symptom of unwanted growth of a cell?
A) Tumour
156) What are the non-cancerous tumours?
A) Benign tumours
157) What are the cancerous tumours?
A) Malignant tumours
158) What is the process of transfer of cancerous cells from one part to the other part of a body?
A) Metastasis
159) What kind of cells never enter G0 phases, but show repeated indefinite cell cycles?
A) Cancer cells
160) What is the cancer of epithelial cells?
A) Carcinoma
162) What are the body parts that may be affected by carcinoma?
A) Breast, lung, pancreas, stomach, etc
163) What is the cancer of muscle cells?
A) Sarcoma
164) What are the body parts that may be affected by Sarcoma?
A) Muscles & lymph nodes
165) What is the cancer of lymphocytes  (WBC)?
A) Leukaemia
166) What are the cancer causing agents?
A) Carcinogens
167) What kind of strong radioactive rays are used to kill cancerous cells?
A) X-rays & Gamma rays
168) What are the physical carcinogens?
A) Radioactive rays
169) Name the fungus toxin or mycotoxin that causes cancer.
A) Aflatoxin
170) What are the biological cancer causing agents?
A) Viruses
171) What is meant by apoptosis?
A) Programmed or suicidal death of a cell
172) At what stage of cell cycle sister chromatids are formed?
A) S stage
173) When does disjunction  of chromatids take place?
A) Anaphase
174) How is called a set of four chromatids in a homologous bivalent?
A) Tetrad
175) What is the number of possible arrangements of chromosomes during metaphase-I of meiosis-I, if n is the number of chromosomes in a haploid set?
A) 2n
176) What is the number of possible arrangements of chromosomes in human cells during metaphase-I of meiosis-I
A) 8 million
177) How does meiosis generate genetic diversity?
A) crossing over during  Meiosis-I, random alignment of chromosomes in Meiosis-I and random alignment of the sister chromatids at Meiosis-II
178) What is must for the cell division to happen?
A) Doubling of genome (DNA) during S phase
179) By which process doubling of genome  (DNA) occur?
A) Replication
180) When does the genome become half?
A) Mitosis
181) Which alkaloid is used to interfere with spindle formation and cell division?
A) Colchicine
182) Which nutrient element has its marked effect of the size and structure of chromosomes?
A) Phosphorus
183) What is the time required for a typical eukaryotic cell to divide once?
A) Approximately every 24 hours
184) What is the time required for a yeast cell to divide once?
A) Approximately every 90 minutes
185) Which ratio decides a cell to divide?
A) N:C ratio
186) What is N:C ratio or N/C ratio?
A) Nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
187) What is N:C ratio of blasts for the formation of
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and megakaryocytes?
A) 4:1
188) Who discovered mitosis?
A) Otto Butschli
189) Who coined the term  "mitosis? "
A) Walther Flemming
190) Who described mitosis  for the first time?
A) Mayzel
191) What is the literal meaning of the word mitosis?
A) "warp thread"
192) What is genome replication without cell division?
A) Endoreplication, endoreduplication or polytenization
193) What is called the repeated endoreplication without  mitosis?
A) Endocycling
194) What is mitosis without karyokinesis and cytokinesis
A) Endomitosis
195) What is the advantage of Endomitosis?
A) Polyploidy
196) What are the cells that undergo meiosis?
A) Meiocytes or germ cells
197) What are the meiocytes in anthers?
A) Pollen Mother Cells or Microspore Mother Cells
197) What are the meiocytes in gynoecium?
A) Pollen Mother Cells or Microspore Mother Cells
A) Megaspore Mother Cells
198) What are the meiocytes in testes?
A) Spermatocytes (in seminiferous tubles)
199) What are the meiocytes in human ovaries?
A) Oocytes
200) What kind of cell divisions are required to form liquid endosperm in coconut water?
A) Free Nuclear Divisions
200) What kind of cell divisions are required to form solid endosperm in coconut meat?
A) Cellular  Divisions
201) What is the process of exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes?
A) Crossing over
202) What kind of alleles are formed due to crossing over?
A) Recombined alleles
203) What are the versions of genes in a gene pair?
A) Allele
204) Who described crossing over for the first time?
A) Thomas Hunt Morgan
205) Who first demonstrated physical basis of crossing over?
A) Harriet Creighton and Barbara McClintockin
206) What could be the DNA repair process in meiosis?
A) Crossing over
207) Which reproductive method of bacteria is similar to crossing over?
A) Transformtion
208) What is the contact between two chromatids that will undergo crossing-over?
A) Chiasma
209) Which organelle regulates the spindle formation in animal cells?
A) Centrosome
210) How many centrioles does a centrosome provide for spindle formation?
A) Two
211) In what kind of life cycle zygotic meiosis takes place?
A) Haplontic life cycle
212) In what kind of life cycle gametic meiosis takes place?
A) Diplontic life cycle
213) In what kind of life cycle sporic meiosis takes place?
A) Haplodiplontic life cycle
214) What are the cells or individuals that are diploid?
A) Diplonts
215) What are the cells or individuals that are formed due to meiosis?
A) Haplonts

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