Saturday, 23 July 2016

VACUOLE (31 Points)

Vacuoles are the homoeostatic organs and organs of storage of different metabolites and excretory products. Presence of a single large vacuole is the characteristic feature of plant cells. Vacuoles are generally absent in animal cells, if present they may be small and  more in number. Vacuoles also play an important role in osmosis, osmo-regulation, cell eating and drinking processes. even the colours of some flowers exclusively dependent on pigments present in vacuoles. Vacuoles are sometimes called as non-living inclusions of cells.

1) Contractile Vacuoles: are the osmoregulatory organelles in protozoans
2) 30-70% of a plant cell is occupied by a large Vacuole.
3) Tonoplast: is the vacuolar membrane
4) Provacuoles: Meristamatic Cells contain provacuoles.
5) Aquaporins: are the carrier proteins in the tonoplast
6) Gas vacuoles: Buoyancy is the chief function of gas vacuoles in blue-green algae.
7) Turgor Pressure: Vacuole maintains turgor pressure.
8) Expansins: partially degrade cell wall for further cell growth.
9) Allicin: is the active chemical in garlics that is stored in vacuoles.
10) Homeostasis: is the process of maintenance of pH in a Cell by vacuoles.
11) Osmoregulation: is the process for maintaining ionic balance in a cell through vacuoles.
12) Toxic ions: Sr, Pb, Co are the different toxic ions stored in vacuoles?
13) Exocytosis: the process by which Golgi complex exports proteins to other cells
14) Endocytosis: process by which cells import proteins from other cells.
15) Phagocytosis: is the other term for cell eating.
16) Pinocytosis: is the other term for cell drinking.
17) Lysosomes & Vacuoles are the two organelles collectively involved in cell eating and cell drinking.
18) Cell sap: is the aqueous liquid in vacuoles.
19) Phagosomes: are the vacuoles with pathogenic bacteria
20) Anthocyanins: are the dissolved blue pigments in plant vacuoles.
21) Animals have more but smaller vacuoles in their cells
22) Plants  have one but a larger vacuole in their cells
23) Primordial Utricle: is the peripheral cytoplasm in a mature plant cell described?
24) Vacuole is responsible for the arrangement of chloroplasts along the cell walls in a mesophyll cell to receive sufficient sunlight
25) Contractile vacuoles: are the star shaped osmoregulatory vacuoles in aquatic protozoans
26) Storage, waste disposal, protection, and cell growth are the different functions of plant vacuoles
27) Vacuoles are the non-living inclusions of cytoplasm.
28) Sucrose or cane sugar is abundant in the vacuoles of sugar-beet roots and sugar-cane stems
29) Inulin is abundant the cell-sap of the tubers of Dahlia
30) Mucilage is abundant in the cell-sap of succulent plants
31) If a tomato fruit is pricked some watery substance oozes out that is nothing but the cell sap stored in vacuoles.

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