Thursday, 28 July 2016

CHLOROPLAST (50 Qs)



The most important organelle in the world that acts as the food factory is the chloroplast. It is the green photosynthetic organelle meant for almost all food supply in the living world. It consists of a basic photosynthetic pigment called chlorophyll.

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) Which is the green plastid?
A) Chloroplast
2) Who coined the word 'chloroplast'?
A) Schimper
3) How is the membrane around the chloroplast called?
A) Plastidial membrane
4) How is the space between two chloroplast membranes called?
A) Periplastidial space
5) What is the aqueous liquid substance in the chloroplast called?
A) Stroma
6) What is the genetic material in chloroplasts?
A) Circular double stranded DNA
7) How is the genome of chloroplasts called?
A) Plastidome
8) What kind of ribosomes are present in chloroplasts?
A) 70S ribosomes
9) What are the innermost membranous systems of the chloroplasts?
A) Thylakouds
10) Where are chlorophyll pigments situated in the chloroplasts?
A) On thylakoid membranes
11) How is the inner space of thylakoids called?
A) Lumen
12) What are the hearts of the photo systems on the thylakoid membrane?
A) Reaction centres
13) Which photosystem is more sensitive to the light waves of 700 nm?
A) Photosystem-I
14) Which photosystem is more sensitive to the light waves of 680 nm?
A) Photosystem-II
15) Which is the most important green pigment in all photosystems?
A) Chlorophyll-a
16) Name a group of pigments which increases light absorption by Photo systems.
A) Light Harvesting Complex  (LHC)
17) Which technique is used to study both surfaces of thylakoid membranes?
A) Freeze fracturing technique
18) How is called a pile of thylakoids in the stroma of chloroplasts?
A) Granum
19) What are the units of a granum?
A) Granum thylakoids
20) What are the intergranal connections?
A) Frets, Stroma Thylakouds or Intergranal lamellae
21) Which photosynthetic phase occurs in grana?
A) Light reaction or photophosphorylation
22) Which photosynthetic phase occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts?
A) Light independentreaction or dark reaction
23) How are carbohydrates stored in the chloroplasts?
A) Starch grains
24) What are the osmium salt containing dots in the stroma of chloroplasts?
A) Osmophilic granules
25) Which is the most abundant protein in the plant world?
A) Rubisco
26) Which alga has spiral ribbon shaped chloroplast?
A) Spirogyra
27) Which alga has star shaped chloroplasts?
A) Zygnema
28) Name the scientist who is famous for studies on thylakoid membranes?
A) Menke
29) What is the photosynthetic unit on thylakoid membranes?
A) Quantosome
30) Who discovered quantosome?
A) Park & Beggins
31)  What are the products of quantosome?
A) ATP, NADPH
32) What is the universal green pigment?
A) Chlorophyll-a
33) How many chlorophyll molecules are present per a quantosome?
A) 250
34) Which epidermal cells do possess choloroplasts?
A) Guard cells
35) How is the phenomenon of existence of two types of chloroplasts described?
A) Dimorphism (Dimorphic chloroplasts)
36) Which part of the leaf of C4 leaves have chloroplasts without grana?
A) Bundle sheath
37) What is the central element of a chlorophyll molecule?
A) Magnesium
38) What is the basic structure of a chlorophyll molecule?
A) Porphyrin ring
39) What is the tail end of a chlorophyll molecule?
A) Phytol chain
40) What is the ratio of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in chloroplasts?
A) 3:1
41) What is the chlorophyll like structure in animals?
A) Heme protein
42) How many membranous systems are there per a chloroplasts?
A) 3 membranous systems
43) Which alga has cup-shaped chloroplasts?
A) Chlamydomonas
44) What are the functional and structural units of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis?
A) Photosystems
45) What are the lipoprotein subcompartments of the chloroplast that are permanently coupled to thylakoid membranes and contain biosynthetic enzymes?
A) Plastoglobulins
46) What are the inter-connections between chloroplasts?
A) Stromules
47) Who discovered chloroplasts?
A) Julius Von Sachs
48) Which symbiotic organism is said to exist as a chloroplast in eukaryotic cells?
A) Cyanobacteria  (Bluegreen alga)
49) Which theory does explain the origin of chloroplasts?
A) Endosymbiotic theory
50) What are the organelles within organelles?
A) Ribosomes
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Wednesday, 27 July 2016

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (21 Qs)




The eukaryotic cell is compartmentalized due to network of organelles called endoplasmic reticulum. The organelle with both protein synthesis and distribution is endoplasmic reticulum.

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) Which organelle is considered as the cytoskeleton?
A) Endoplasmic Reticulum
2) Who discovered ER?
A) KE Porter
3) What are the flattened saccular expansions of ER?
A) Cisternae
4) What are the protein cargoes of ER?
A) Vesicles
5) How are the tubular structures of ER described?
A) Anastomosing Tubules
6) How is the ribosomes bearing ER called?
A) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) or Granular Endoplasmic Reticulum
7) How is the complex structure of ER with polysomes described?
A) Ergastoplasm
8) How is the ER without ribosomes called?
A) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum  (SER)
9) Which part of the nucleus does form continuity with ER?
A) Nuclear Envelope
10) What kind of plant cells have very high concentration of ER?
A) Meristems
11) How is ER of striated muscle cells called?
A) Sarcoplastic Reticulum
12) What kind of cells never have ER?
A) Prokaryotic cells
13) What are the different human or mammalian cells without ER?
A) Ova, Embryos and RBC
14) What is the chief function of RER?
A) Protein Synthesis
15) What are the different kinds of lipids synthesized by SER?
A) Cholesterol and Steroids
16) Name the intercellular connections traversed by ER  in plant tissues?
A) Plasmodesmata
17) Which structural property of ER results in isolation of biochemical substances in cells?
A) Compartmentalization
18) Which cell organelle is in close proximity to ER other than nucleus?
A) Golgi apparatus
19) How are the ribosomes on RER called?
A) Membrane bound ribosomes
20) Where does protein folding  take place in ER?
A) Lumen
21) What kind of ions are supplied to striated muscles through ER?
A) Calcium ions

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Monday, 25 July 2016

GOLGI APPARATUS (25 Qs)


The secretory organelle in the eukaryotic cells is the golgi complex. It consists of flattened sac like structures called cisternae. It is the main packing and bottling factory in the cell.

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) Which is the internal reticular apparatus?
A) Golgi apparatus
2) What are the other names of golgi apparatus?
A) Lipochondrion or Idiosomes
3) What is the common name of golgi apparatus?
A) Secretory organelles
4) Who discovered golgi apparatus?
A) Camello Golgi
5) Name the bird in whose nervous tissue Camello Golgi discovered golgi bodies?
A) Barn owl
6) Which mammalian cell is lack of golgi apparatus?
A) RBC
7) Which plant cell is lack of golgi apparatus?
A) Sieve tubes
8) What kind of endoplasmic reticulum gives off golgi bodies?
A) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
9) What are the flattened bag like structures of golgi apparatus?
A) Cisternae or Saccules
10) What are the secretions carrying structures of golgi apparatus?
A) Secondary vesicles
11) What are the lysosomes forming structures of golgi apparatus?
A) Lysosomal vesicles
12) What are the branched structures of golgi apparatus?
A) Tubules
13)  What is the convex region of golgi apparatus that points towards endoplasmic reticulum or nucleus?
A) CGN - Cis Golgi Network
14) What is the concave region of endoplasmic reticulum that points towards the centriole?
A) TGN - Trans Golgi Network
15) What type of lysosomes are produced from golgi apparatus?
A) Primary Lysosomes
16) Which part of the sperm cell contains golgi apparatus to penetrate into the egg cell?
A) Acrosome
17) What is the first formed cell wall precursor by golgi apparatus during cytokinesis of cell division?
A) Cell plate
18) What are the different kinds of proteins secreted by golgi apparatus?
A) Hormones, glycoproteins & lipoproteins
19) How is called the phenomenon of differentiation of cis- and trans-faces by golgi apparatus?
A) Structural polarity
20) What are the insectivorous plants with slime secretions from golgi apparatus?
A) Drosera ( Sundew plant) & Drosopgyllum  (Dewpine)
21) How is gogi apparatus of animal cells described?
A) Golgi ribbon
22) How is gogi apparatus nicknamed due to its proteins packing services?
A) Post office organelle
23) Which chemical is used for the proof test to know the functioning of golgi apparatus?
A) Brefeldin
24) By which process substances are transferred from endoplasmic reticulum to golgi apparatus?
A) Bulk flow
25) How are the discreet units of golgi bodies in plant cells called?
A) Dictyosomes

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LYSOSOMES (20 Qs)




The chief digestive organelle of the cell is the lysosome. It is the single membranous capsule containing hydrolytic enzymes. In the case of starvations it kills the entire cell, so it is also called as the suicidal bag of the cell.

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What are the waste disposal systems of the cell?
A) Lysosomes
2) Who discovered lysosomes?
A) Christian de Duve

3) Which mammalian cell does not contain lysosomes?
A) RBC
4) Name the fungus with lysosomes.
A) Neurospora
5) Name a monocot plant with lysosomes.
A) Maize

6) Which plant seedlings do possess lysosomes?
A) Tobacco

7) What kind of enzymes are associated with lysosomes?
A) Hydrolytic enzymes
8) How is the condition of existence of Lysosomes in different forms described?
A) Polymorphism
9) What are the newly formed lysosomes with inactive enzymes?
A) Primary Lysosomes or Storage Granules
10) What are the food vacuoles or phagosome containing  lysosomes?
A) Secondary Lysosomes or Digestive Vacuoles
11) What are the lysosomes with undigested food materials?
A) Residual Bodies
12) What kind of lysosomes are meant for destroying the starving cells?
A) Cytolysosomes or Autophagosomes
13) How is called the process of self-destruction of a cell?
A) Autolysis or Autophagy
14) What is the conducive pH for the activation of enzymes in lysosomes?
A) 4.5-5
15) How many kinds of enzymes are reported to be possibly associated with lysosomes?
A) 50 kinds of enzymes
16) What are the major hydrolytic enzymes of lysosomes?
A) Cathapsins
17) How are pathogens- engulphed lysosomes called?
A) Macrophages
18) What is the nickname of lysosomes?
A) Suicidal bags of the cell
19) Which cell organelle does produce lysosomes?
A) Golgi complex
20) What are the different hydrolytic enzymes in lysosomes?
A) Proteases,  Glycosidases, Lipases, Phospholipase, Phosphotases, Nucleases, Ribonucleases
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MICROBODIES (21 Qs)



Microbodies are the single celled organelles in living cells performing varied functions. Some of these organelles are peroxisomes, sphaerosomes, glyoxisomes, glycosomes, etc.

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) Name the enzyme in Peroxisomes that catalyses substances into hydrogen peroxide.
A) Oxidase
2) Name the enzymes that catalyses hydrogen peroxide into water.
A) Catalase & Peroxidase
3) In which process plants release carbon dioxide from 2 carbon compounds in hot sunlight?
A) Photorespiration
4) Who discovered peroxisomes?
A) Christian de Duve
5) In which organ peroxisomes were discovered for the first time?
A) Rat liver
6) Who gave the detailed description of peroxisomes for the first time?
A) J Rhodin
7) Which is the most abundant phospholipid in the myelin of nervous tissue?
A) Plasmalogen
8) What kind of enzymes are catalase and oxidase?
A)Oxidative enzymes
9) Which disease is caused due to uric acid accumulation?
A) Gout
10) Which organelle is involved in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide?
A) Peroxisome
11) Which spherical organelle is meant exclusively for fat metabolism?
A) Sphaerosomes
12) Which organelle carries out glyoxylate cycle in peanuts, soybean and sunflower seeds?
A) Glyoxysome
13) Which parts of the leguminous plant are rich in glycosomes?
A) Root nodules
14) By which process fats are converted into sugars?
A) Glucogenesis
15) Who discovered glyoxysomes?
A) Breidenbach & Beevers
16) Which microbody is rich in glycolytic enzymes?
A) Glycosome
17) Who discovered glycosomes?
A) Scott & Still
18) How are the glycosomes of Trypanosoma and  Leishmania called?
A) Trypanosomes
19) What kind of cells possess non-membranous glycosomes?
A) Hepatocytes
20) What are the double membranous microbodies that resemble mitochondria?
A) Hydrogenosomes
21) Who discovered hydrogenosomes?
A) Lindmark & Muller

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Sunday, 24 July 2016

CENTRIOLE & CENTROSOME (23 Qs)



One of the most important features of living organisms is growth and reproduction. Both these phenomena are due to cell division. In cell division distribution of chromosomes is the most important aspect. Here centrioles play an important role by forming spindle fibres.

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS


1) What is the spherical body that controls the arrangement of centrioles in a cell?
A) Centrosphere
2) How is the thick fluid substance in Centrosome called?
A) Kinoplasm
3) How is a pair of centrioles in a centrosome called?
A) Diplosome
4) How are two centrioles arranged in a centrosome ?
A) Perpendicular arrangement
5) Who gave the ultrastructure of centrioles?
A) Benden & Boveri
6) What is the shape of a Centriole?
A) Cartwheel structure
7) What kind of arrangement of fibrils is seen in a centriole?
A) 9+0 arrangement
8) How are groups of CBA fibrils in a centriole described?
A) Triplet fibrils
9) What are the building blocks of centrioles?
A) Tubulins
10) How much angle is maintained by triplets of fibrils with respect to each other?
A) 40 degree angle
11) What is meant by PCM?
A) Peri Centriolar Matrix
12) How many protofilaments are there per a microtubule?
A) 13 fibrils
13) What are the connecting links between adjacent triplets?
A) C-A linkers
14) In which phase of cell cycle centrioles are duplicated?
A) G2 phase
15) What are the A to hub links?
A) Massules or Peri Centriolar Satellites
16) Which enzyme provides energy to locomotory organelles & spingle fibre movement?
A) ATPase
17) What is the origin of spindle fibres during cell division?
A) Asters
18) Name the eukaryotic organisms without centrioles.
A) Funi, Pinophytes & Angiosperms
19) Which cellular organelle guides the location of a nucleus?
A) Centriole
20) Which enzyme is responsible for the duplication and separation of centrioles?
A) Separase
21) Name the genes responsible for the formation of centrioles.
A) Centrins
22) How many triplets are there per a centriole?
A) 9 triplets
23) What is the mother centriole for cilia and flagella?
A) Blepharoplast, Basal body or Kinetosome
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CILIA & FLAGELLA (30 Qs)




Cilia and flagella are the two important locomotory organelle in unicellular organisms. Besides this they are present in multicellular organisms for the transport of gametes or metabolic substances. Different kinds of movement in both unicellular organisms and multicellular higher organisms are exhibited due to the presence of these organelles.






1) What is the common term for motile cilia and flagella?
A) Undulipodia
2) What kind of cilia are found over every mammalian cell?
A) Primary Cilia or Non-motile Cilia
3) What are the sensory cellular antennae in photoreceptor and olfactory receptor cells?
A) Cilia
4) What kind of cilia are present in mammalian trachea and fallopian tubes?
A) Motile Cilia
5) What are the protozoans with cilia?
A) Ciliates
6) What is the bundle of microtubules in cilia or flagella?
A) Axoneme
7) What is the motor protein in cilia or flagella?
A) Kinetin
8) Which protein does form bridges between central fibrils and subfibres of a doublet?
A) Dynein
9) Which protein does connect B-A linkers and radial spokes between microtubule doublets?
A) Nexin
10) What are the building blocks of cilia?
A) Tubulin
11) What are the building blocks of flagella?
A) Flagellin
12) Which is the microtubules organizing centre in cilia or flagella?
A) Blepharoplast,  Kinetosome or Basal Body
13) What kind of sensations are perceived by primary cilia in mammals?
A) Chemo-, mechano- & thermo- sensations
14) What are the basal parts of a flagellum?
A) Basal body,  basal plate & rootlets
15) What is the exposed whip like part of a flagellum?
A) Shaft
16) What are the three parts of a flagellar shaft?
A) Sheath,  matrix & axoneme
17) At what angle do the peripheral doublets tilt in a flagellum?
A) 10 degree
18) What kind of locomotory organelles show sweeping or pendular movements?
A) Cilia
19) How are simultaneous movements of flagella described?
A) Synchronous or Isochronous movements
20) How are alternate movements of flagella described?
A) Metachronous movements
21) Which is the flagellated cell in human beings or mammals?
A) Sperm cell
22) What kind of movement is exhibited by bacterial flagella?
A) Rotary movement
23) What kind of movement is exhibited by eukaryotic  flagella?
A) Bending movement
24) What is the driving force for prokaryotic flagella?
A) Protons
25) What is the driving force for eukaryotic flagella?
A) ATP
26) How is the rotary engine of bacterial flagella described?
A) Mot complex
27) What kind of microtubular arrangement is seen in bacterial flagella?
A) 9+0 arrangement
28) What kind of microtubular arrangement is seen in eukaryotic flagella?
A) 9+2 arrangement
29) How are called pairs of peripheral microtubules in cilia or flagella?
A) Doublets
30) How are called individual central microtubules in cilia or flagella?
A) Singlets
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RIBOSOME (41 Qs)


Ribosomes are the non-membranous organelles present all over the living kingdom except viruses. They are  present both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells though with different configurations. They are the chief protein factories in the cells. 70 S ribosomes are present in prokaryotic cells and their host cells - mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts). Eukaryotic cells consist of 80S ribosomes either fitted on rough endoplasmic reticulum or freely suspended in cytoplasm. Ribosomes consist of structural RNA called ribosomal RNA. Besides this ribosomes need messenger RNA and transport RNA to carry out the process of protein synthesis.


1) Where does biological protein synthesis take place?
A) Ribosomes
2) What are the protein factories?
A) Ribosomes
3) What are the work benches for protein synthesis in an eukaryotic cell?
A) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
4) How many subunits do make a ribosome?
A) 2
5) Which is the mRNA reader?
A) Smaller Ribosomal Subunit
6) Which part of the ribosome prints proteins as per mRNA?
A) Larger Ribosomal Subunit
7) Which is the translational apparatus in the cell?
A) Ribosome
8) What is the chemical nature of a ribosome?
A) Ribonucleoprotein
9) Which is the ribozyme with peptidyl transferase?
A) rRNA
10) What kind of organisms do have only 70S ribosomes?
A) ProkaryoticOrganisms
11) What kind of organelles in eukaryotic cells have 70S ribosomes?
A) Mitochondria & Plastids (Chloroplasts)
12) Who discovered ribosomes through electron microscopic studies?
A) George Emil Palade
13) Who has coined the term "ribosome"?
A) Richard B Roberts
14) What percentage of a ribosome is an rRNA?
A) 65%
15) What is meant by 'S' in 70S ribosomes?
A) Svedberg Unit
16) Which unit is used to denote the rate of sedimentation coefficients of cellular organelles in centrifugation experiments?
A) Svedberg Unit
17) What are the two subunits of a 70S ribosomes?
A) 50S & 30S
18) What are the two subunits of a 80S ribosome?
A) 60S & 40S
19) What is the most suitable method to study ribosomal structure?
A) X-ray crystallography
20) What is a unit of 3 nucleotides?
A) Codon
21) Where is anti-codon located?
A) Aminoacyl-tRNA on smaller units
22) What is the seat of peptidyl-tRNA?
A) Larger Ribosomal Subunit
23) What is the start codon?
A) AUG
24) Where are free ribosomes located?
A) Cytosol
25) Where are membrane bound ribosomes present?
A)Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
26) Where are ribosomes produced in an eukaryotic cell?
A) Nucleolus & Cytoplasm
27) Name the glycoprotein that binds ribosomes to endoplasmic reticulum.
A) Ribophorin
28) What is the core of a ribosome?
A) rRNA
29) What are paladesomes?
A) Ribosomes
30) How do you describe an mRNA with a number of ribosomes on it?
A) Polysome or polyribosome
31) What are the building blocks of proteins?
A) Amino acids
32) What are the carriers of amino acids?
A) tRNAs
33) What are the carriers of DNA information?
A) mRNA
34) How does endoplasmic reticulum get rough nature?
A) Due to ribosomes
35) What is the chief function of RER?
A) Protein Synthesis
36) Who did first notice ribosomes?
A) Albert Claude
37) How did Claude call ribosomes?
A) Microsomes
38) Who has coined the word "ribosomes"?
A) RB Roberts
39) Where are membrane bound ribosomes present?
A) on Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
40) How are polysomes along with endoplasmic reticulum described?
A) Ergastoplasm
41) How are ribosomes in mitochondria and chloroplasts are described as per their location?
A) Organelles within organelles

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Saturday, 23 July 2016

VACUOLE (31 Points)

Vacuoles are the homoeostatic organs and organs of storage of different metabolites and excretory products. Presence of a single large vacuole is the characteristic feature of plant cells. Vacuoles are generally absent in animal cells, if present they may be small and  more in number. Vacuoles also play an important role in osmosis, osmo-regulation, cell eating and drinking processes. even the colours of some flowers exclusively dependent on pigments present in vacuoles. Vacuoles are sometimes called as non-living inclusions of cells.


1) Contractile Vacuoles: are the osmoregulatory organelles in protozoans
2) 30-70% of a plant cell is occupied by a large Vacuole.
3) Tonoplast: is the vacuolar membrane
4) Provacuoles: Meristamatic Cells contain provacuoles.
5) Aquaporins: are the carrier proteins in the tonoplast
6) Gas vacuoles: Buoyancy is the chief function of gas vacuoles in blue-green algae.
7) Turgor Pressure: Vacuole maintains turgor pressure.
8) Expansins: partially degrade cell wall for further cell growth.
9) Allicin: is the active chemical in garlics that is stored in vacuoles.
10) Homeostasis: is the process of maintenance of pH in a Cell by vacuoles.
11) Osmoregulation: is the process for maintaining ionic balance in a cell through vacuoles.
12) Toxic ions: Sr, Pb, Co are the different toxic ions stored in vacuoles?
13) Exocytosis: the process by which Golgi complex exports proteins to other cells
14) Endocytosis: process by which cells import proteins from other cells.
15) Phagocytosis: is the other term for cell eating.
16) Pinocytosis: is the other term for cell drinking.
17) Lysosomes & Vacuoles are the two organelles collectively involved in cell eating and cell drinking.
18) Cell sap: is the aqueous liquid in vacuoles.
19) Phagosomes: are the vacuoles with pathogenic bacteria
20) Anthocyanins: are the dissolved blue pigments in plant vacuoles.
21) Animals have more but smaller vacuoles in their cells
22) Plants  have one but a larger vacuole in their cells
23) Primordial Utricle: is the peripheral cytoplasm in a mature plant cell described?
24) Vacuole is responsible for the arrangement of chloroplasts along the cell walls in a mesophyll cell to receive sufficient sunlight
25) Contractile vacuoles: are the star shaped osmoregulatory vacuoles in aquatic protozoans
26) Storage, waste disposal, protection, and cell growth are the different functions of plant vacuoles
27) Vacuoles are the non-living inclusions of cytoplasm.
28) Sucrose or cane sugar is abundant in the vacuoles of sugar-beet roots and sugar-cane stems
29) Inulin is abundant the cell-sap of the tubers of Dahlia
30) Mucilage is abundant in the cell-sap of succulent plants
31) If a tomato fruit is pricked some watery substance oozes out that is nothing but the cell sap stored in vacuoles.