Saturday, 29 October 2016

How do plants do sex?

Most of the plants what we see around are called by botanists as angiosperms. That means the plants in which tiny baby plants or seeds are surrounded by soft and tasty fruit pulp and protective fruit coat. Whether these seeds are formed by themselves or any great mechanisms lies behind it, is the inquisitive question. Yes, that's through sexual reproduction.

We all know that production of babies resembling that of their parents is called reproduction. Could we call production of vehicles as reproduction. No, why because the structure of vehicles is different from that of the factory that produces them! Then what's meant by sex? This's another question!  Sex means being distinguished into male and female beings due to distinctive reproductive features. Just like human beings and other animals plants too exist as male plants and female plants,  or as a single plant with both male and female flowers, or as a single flower with male and female organs. Anyhow union of a male cell with a female cell is compulsory to be called as sexual reproduction.  

Animals and human beings can move from one place to the other to do mating with their opposite sex or to fulfil the need for perpetuation of their species. But plants have their own limitations. That means they can't move from one place to the other. But nature has the sense of "live and let live" principle.

To make possible the process of mating between plants or their beautiful flowers mediators like insects, snails, snakes, birds, bats and other animals and even  elephants are always there! These kind companions which have learnt the art of living are called pollinators. Another question is, "Why are these agents called pollinators?" The answer is due to their assistance in pollination. 

Then, what's meant by pollination? Pollination means transfer of pollen from anthers to stigma. It's just like introduction of sperms into the womb of the female in case of animals.  Here anthers are male parts of the plant that produce and release male cells packed inside a tightly packed micro balls called the pollen. At the time of maturiy the pollen from males has to reach the stigma of the females. This process is made possible by wind breeze, cool water or living creatures. Stigma is the reception counter of the female organ where male cells are let to go deep into the ovary to unite with their female counterparts. 

Wow! What the great mechanism in the plant world? So much process takes place without any song, music, dance, indecency and obscenity. No need of any video clip, sex ads or violence. That's why the nature is so beautiful, great, peaceful and ever appealing!

Gymnosperms

Illustrative Gymnosperms



Monday, 10 October 2016

REPRODUCTION IN PTERIDOPHYTA (77 Qs)

 
1) What are the first vascular plants?
A) Pteridophytes
2) What are the vascular cryptogams?
A) Pteridophytes
3) What are the non-vascular cryptogams?
A) Gymnosperms
4) What are the plants without flowers and seeds?
A) Cryptogams
5) What are the diffetent groups of pteridophytes?
A) Ferns, horsetails, clubmosses, spikemosses and quillworts.
6) What are pteridophytes that closely related to seed plants?
A) Ferns & horsetails
7) What are the lycophytes?
A) Club mosses, spike mosses and quillworts
8) What are monilophytes?
A) Ferns
9) What are the different groups of fossil Pteridophytes?
A) Rhyniophyta, Zosterophyllophyta, Trimerophytophyta, & progymnosperms.
10) What is meant by alternation of generations?
A) Alternation of diploid generation with haploid generation 
11) Which is the diploid phase of a plant?
A) Sporophyte
12) Which is the haploid phase of a plant?
A) Gametophyte
13) Which is the spore producing plant?
A) Sporophyre
14) Which is the gamete producing plant?
A) Gametophyte
15) Which is the only group of plants in which both 
gametophyte and sporophyte are independent and free-living?
A) Pteridophytes
16) Which is the group of plants in which the sporophyte is dependent on the gametophyte?
A) Brtophytes
17) Which is the group of plants in which the gametophyte is dependent on the sporophyte?
A) Phanerogams
18) What are the male organs in bryophytes and pteridophytes?
A) Antheridia
19) What are the female organs in bryophytes and pteridophytes?
A) Archegonia
20) What are the gametophytic plants with either antheridia or archegonia?
A) Dioicous plants
21) What are the  gametophytic plants with both antheridia and archegonia?
A) Monoicous plants
22) What is the condition in which antheridia mature earlier than archegonia?
A) Protandrous
23) What is the condition in which  archegonia mature earlier than  antheridia?
A) Protogynous
24) What is the term used to describe the leaves of pteridophytes?
A) Fronds
25) What are the pteridophytes that grow on other plants?
A) Epiphytic pteridophytes
26) What are the aquatic ferns?
A) Water velvet & mosquito fern
27) What is the scientific name of water velvet?
A) Salvinia molesta
28) What is the scientific name of the mosquito fern?
A) Azolla
29) How many species of pteridophyte are so far described?
A) 13,000 species
30) What is the height of the tallest pteridophyte?
A) 36.5 meters [120 feet]
31) Which pteridophyte is considered as the ancestor of modern club mosses?
A) Lepidodendron
32) Name the tiny floating fern which is used as "green fertilizer" in rice fields?
A) Azolla
33) What is the common name of Lycopodiopsida?
A) Club mosses
34) What is the common name of equisetopsida?
A) Horse tails
35) What are microphylls? 
A) Leavess with a single, unbranched vein and modest vascular supplies that do not cause breaks or gaps in the stem vasculature.
36) What are the pteridophytes with microphylls?
A) Club mosses & horse tails
37) What are macrophylls?
A) Leaves with extensively branched veins leaving distinctive gaps in the xylem and phloem of the stem.
38) What are the pteridophytes with macrophylls?
A) True ferns
39) What is the common name of Filicopsida?
A) True ferns
40) What are the spore producing organs?
A) Sporangia
41) By which process spores are formed in sporangia?
A) Meiosis
42) What is the asexual phase of plants?
A) Sporophyte
43) What is the sexual phase of plants?
A) Gametophyte
44) What is the product of sperm and egg?
A) Zygote
What is the first diploid stage of plants?
A) Zygote
45) What is the phenomenon of production of similar spores?
A) Homospory
46) What is the phenomenon of production of dissimilar spores?
A) Heterospory
47) What are the larger spores?
A) Megaspores
48) What are the smaller spores?
A) Microspores
49) What is formed from a megaspore?
A) Megagametophyte
50) What are the sex organs produced by megagametophytes?
A) Archegonia
51) What are formed from microspores?
A) Microgametophytes
52) What are the sex organs produced by microgametophytes?
A) Antheridia
53) What are the Heterosporous pteridophytes?
A) Selaginellales, Isoetales, Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae
54) What is the result of heterospory?
A) Evolution of seed plants
55) Which part of the fern plants are used in floral arrangements?
A) Leaves
56) What is the powder that used to coat  rubber gloves, prophylactics and photographers' flash powder?
A) Spores of club mosses
57) What is the sporangia-bearing cone-like structure?
A) Strobilus
58) What are the leaves in the strobilus?
A) Sporophylls
59) A group of sporangia on leaves - Sorus
60) Which is quillwort?
A) Isoetes
58) Which is thr orsetails?
A) Equisetum
61) What was the period of horsetIls?
A) Carboniferous Period (300 million years ago)
62) What are "scouring rushes"?
A) Horsetails
63) Which mineral element gives roughness to the stems of scouring rushes?
A) Silicon
64) What is the scientific name of bird's nest fern?
A) Asplenium nidus
65) What is the scientific name of sword fern?
A) Polystichum
66) What is the special hygroscopic belt of cells around the sporangium useful in spore dispersal?
A) Annulus
67) What is the minute heart-shaped microscopic gametophyte of pteridophytes?
A) Prothallus
68) What is the scientific name of the bracken fern?
A) Pteridium
69) What is the scientific name of the Australian tree fern?
A) Alsophila australis
70) What is the underground stem of pteridophytes?
A) Rhizome
71) What is vernation?
A) Arrangement of leaves in bud condition
72) What is the characteristic kind of vernation seen in pteridophytes?
A) Circinnate Vernation
73) In what kind of vernation leaves are arranged like a watch spring?
A) Circinate vernation
74) What are the first land plants?
A) Bryophytes
75) What are the first true land plants?
A) Pteridophytes
76) What are the botanical snakes or snakes of the plant kingdom?
A) Pteridophytes
77) What are the vascular plants without flowers and seeds but with embryos?
A) Pteridophytes

Monday, 3 October 2016

REPRODUCTION IN BRYOPHYTA

Bryophytes are the amphibians of the plant kingdom that form the connecting link between aquatic algae and terrestrial pteridophytes. They show both vegetative and sexual methods of reproduction. The process of reproduction  depends on the availability of water in the surroundings.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.



QUESTION & ANSWERS

1) What are the non-vascular embryophytes?
A) Bryophytes
2) What is the common feature of all land plants?
A) All are embryophytes
3) What are the amphibians of the plant kingdom?
A) Bryophytes
4) What are the three types of bryophytes? 
A) Mosses, hornworts, and liverworts
5) What are the land plants or embryophtes with dominant gametophytes?
A) Bryophytes
6) What are the enclosed reproductive structures in bryophytes? 
A) Gametangia & sporangia
7) What are the gamete producing structures?
A) Gametangia
8) What are the spores producing structures?
A) Sporangia
9) Which is the haploid phase of bryophytes?
A) Gametophyte
10) Which is the diploid phase of bryophytes?
A) Sporophyte
11) What kind of cell division is required to produce gametes in gametophytes?
A) Mitosis
12) What kind of cell division is required to produce spores in sporophytes?
A) Meiosis
13) What is the first phase of a gametophyte?
A) Spore
14) What is the first phase of a sporophyte?
A) Zygote
15) Name the liverwort that bears gametangia on umbrella shaped gametangiophore?
A) Marchantia
16) What are the male gametangia?
A) Antheridia
17) What are the female gametangia?
A) Archegonia
18) What are the homothallic, monoicous, bisexual or hermaphrodite bryophytes?
A) Bryophytes in which both antheridia and archegonia occur on the same gametophyte
19) What are the heterothallic, dioicous or unisexual bryophytes?
A) Bryophytes in which antheridia and archegonia occur on different gametophytes
20) What are the plants in which antheridia and archegonia are borne on the same branch or structure?
A) Paroicous or paroecious gametophytes
21) What are the plants in which antheridia and archegonia are borne on different branches or structures?
A) Autoicous or autoecious gametophytes
22) What is meant by hepatophyta?
A) Liverworts
23) What is meant by anthocerotophyta?
A) Hornworts
24) What is meant by bryopsida?
A) Mosses
25) What kind of movement is exhibited by antherozoids or spermatozoids in bryophytes?
A) Chemotaxis
26) Which is the parasitic phase of a bryophytic plant? A) Sporophyte
28) What are the hats of the bryophytes?
A) Sporophytes (capsules)
27) What are the most primitive true plants?
A) Bryophytes
28) What is the most essential factor for a bryophytic plant to reproduce?
A) Water
29) What is the most suitable season for a bryophytic plant to reproduce?
A) Rainy season
30) What is the spore factory?
A) Sporangium
31) What is the approximate number of bryophyte species?
A) 18,000
32) What are the most abundant Bryophytes?
A) Mosses
33) What are the least abundant Bryophytes?
A) Hornworts
34) What is the most common method of vegetative reproduction in bryophytes?
A) Fragmentation
35) What are the vegetative structures that are formed due to dessication in bryophytes?
A) Tubers
36) What are the characteristic vegetative structures on the dorsal surface of Marchantia?
A) Gemma cups
37) Name the bryophytes with star shaped gemmae?
A) Blasia
38) What is the process of having a single vigorously growing upright branch in Sphagnum moss?
A) Innovation.
39) What is the filament like stage produced by a moss spore?
A) Primary protonema
40) What is the filament like stage produced from parts other than a moss spore?
A) Secondary protonema
41) What are the small starch containing resting buds on rhizoids?
A) Bulbils
42) What is the process of the production of diploid gametophyte from the unspecialized sporophyte without meiosis?
A) Apospory
43) What are the detachable branches which help in vegetative reproduction?
A) Cladia
44) What is the process of survival of a species from season to season witha period of reduced activity?
A) Perennation
45) What kind of sexual reproduction is seen among bryophytes?
A) Oogamy
46) What are the cells that metamorphose into antherozoids in bryophytes? A) Androcytes
47) What are the different chemical substances from  archegonia that attract antherozoids towards them? A) Sugars, malic acid, proteins, inorganic salts of potassium etc.
48) What is the multicellular structure formed from zygote?
A) Embryo
49) In what kind of embryogeny the outer cell develops into embryo?
A) Exoscopic embryogeny
50) Why are bryophytes called homosporous?
A) All spores are similar in shape, size and structure
51) What are the hygroscopic structures in the sporophyte of Marchantia that help in spore dispersal?
A) Elaters
52) What are the hygroscopic structures in the sporophyte of Anthoceros that help in spore dispersal?
A) Pseudo elaters
53) What is the haploid  gametophytic tissue that encloses the diploid sporophyte in bryophytes?
A) calyptra
54) How are called the spore that are formed due to meiosis?
A) Meiospores
55) What is the first cell of the gametophytic phase?
A) Spore
56) What are the connecting links between  algae and pteridophytes?
A) Bryophytes
57) What kind of flagella are possessed by the antherozoids of bryophytes?
A) Whiplash type
58) What is the filamentous juvenile stage in mosses?
A) Protonema
59) What are the primitive and simple leafless and rootless sporophytes of mosses?
A) Protonema
60) Name the bryophyte with stomata?
A) Anthoceros (sporogonium)
61) What is the process in which mixing of genes of two parents occur to produce genetically different offspring?
A) Sexual reproduction
62) In what kind of reproduction daughter plants are derived from just one parent plant?
A) Asexual & vegetative reproduction
63) What is the medium of transfer of antherozoids in bryophytes?
A) Water
64) What are the jewels of Marchantia?
A) Gemmae
65) What are the club shaped gametangia?
A) Antheridia
66) What are the flask shaped gametangia?
A) Archegonia
67) Which is the egg bearing part of the archegonium?
A) Venter
67) What are the cells that develop at the sporophyte-gametophyte boundary in bryophytes?
A) Transfer cells
68) What is the phenomenon of development of more than one sporophyte from an archegonial group?
A). Polysety
69) What are the spore producing cells?
A) Spore mother cells or sporocytes.
70) By which process spore tetrads are formed?
A) Meiosis
71) What is the central sterile tissue in the capsules of Anthoceros and mosses?
A) Columella
72) What are the two layers in the spore wall of bryophytes?
A) Exospore & endospore
73) In what kind of alternation of generations morphologically different gametophyte and sporophyte present?
A) Heteromorphic alternation of generations


Thursday, 29 September 2016

REPRODUCTION IN FUNGI (117 Qs)


Fungi are the cell wall containing heterotrophic multicellular organisms with vegetative, asexual and sexual methods of reproduction.  A myriad kind of spores and hyphae with characteristic colours can be seen in the kingdom.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.




QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What kind of cell division is required for binary fission in eukaryotes?
A) Mitosis
2) How is a single population formed from fission is described?
A) Clones
3) Which fungus reproduces through fission?
A) Yeast
4) What is the vegetative method of reproduction in filamentous algae and fungal hyphae?
A) Fragmentation
5) Which propagation method is used in the laboratory for the inoculation of saprophytic fungus?
A) Hyphal tip method
6) What is the common vegetative method of reproduction in hydra and yeast cells?
A) Budding
7) What are the motile asexual spores in phycomycetes fungi?
A) Zoospores
8) What are locomotory organs of Zoospores?
A) Flagella
9) What are the most common zoospores?
A) Biflagellate zoospores
10) What are the structures that produce zoospores?
A) Zoosporangia
11) What are the lower fungi that produce zoospores?
A) Albugo, Pythium, Phytophthora
12) Name fungi that produce uniflgellate zoospores.
A) Allomyces, Rhizidiomyces
13) Name fungi that produce biflgellate zoospores.
A) Plasmodiophora, Saprolegina
14) What are the spherical propagules formed due to breaking down of hyphae?
A) Oidia
15) What are the two types of thallospores in fungi?
A) Arthrospores & Chlamydospores
16) What are the modified non-motile zoospores with a thick wall to tide over unfavourable conditions?
A) Aplanospores
17) What are the fungi that produce aplanospores?
A) Mucor, Rhizopus
18) What are the two wall layers of sporangiospores in Mucor and Rhizopus?
A) Exosporium and Endosporium
19) What are the common asexual exospores in zygomycetes?
A) Sporangiospores
20) What are the common asexual spores in Ascomycetes & Deuteromycetes?
A) Conidia
21) What are the common exospores in fungi?
A) Conidia
23) What are the hyphae that bear conidia?
A) Conidiophores
24) What are the conidia of Alternaria?
A) Porospores
25) What are the conidia of Aspergillus?
A) Phialospores
26) Name the fungus that produces micro and macroconidia.
A) Fusarium
27) What are the special cells that bear conidia?
A) Sterigmata
28) What are the fungi that bear multicellular conidia?
A) Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
29) What are the different kinds of structures that produce exospores in pustules?
A) Pycnia, aecidia, acervuli, and sporodochia
30) How are called the closely packed parallel plates of Conidiophores?
A) Synnema
31) What are the pitcher shaped structure with ostium with conidiophores?
A) Pycnidium (Pycniospores)
32) What is the saucer-shaped structure with tightly packed conidiophores ?
A) Acervulus
33) What is the saucer-shaped structure with loosely packed conidiophores ?
A) Sporodochia
34) What are the fungi that produce basidiospores in umbrella shaped fruiting bodies?
A) Mushrooms  (Basidiomycetes)
35) What are the asexual spores formed from sporangia?
A) Sporangiospores
36) What are the special fungal hyphae that bear asexual spores in fungi?
A) Sporangiophores & Conidiophores
37) How is called the organism that produces different types of spores?
A) Pleiomorphic or polymorphic
38) What are the different types of spores produced by pleiomorphic rust fungus?
A) Spermatia,  Aeciospores, Uredospores, Teliospores and Basidiospores
39) What are the spores that are directly formed on filaments or hyphae?
A) Exogenous spores or exospores
40) What are the spores that are  formed inside special reproductive structures?
A) Endogenous spores or endospores
41) Name the organisms without sexual reproduction.
A) Blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) and fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
42) What are the fungi without sexual stages?
A) Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
43) What are the asexual forms of fungi?
A) Anamorphs
44) What are the sexual forms of fungi?
A) Teleomorphs
45) What are fungi with both asexual and sexual forms?
A) Holomorphs
46) What are the anamorphic fungi?
A) Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
47) What  is the individual organism with both male and female sex organs or plus and minus strains?
A) Monoecious or homothallic
48) What  is the individual organism with either male or female sex organ; or plus or minus strain?
A) Dioecious or heterothallic
49) What are the cells that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametes
50) What are the organs that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametangia
51) What are the male gametangia?
A) Antheridia
52) What are the female gametangia?
A) Oogonia
53) What is the process of union of gametes in which both or any one of the gametes is motile?
A) Planogametic copulation
54) What are the morphologically and physiologically similar gametes?
A) Isogametes
55) What is the process of union between two similar gametes?
A) Isogamy
56) What are the most primitive fungi that produce isogametes?
A) Synchytrium, Plasmodiophora
57) What are the morphologically and physiologically dissimilar male and female gametes?
A) Anisogametes or heterogametes
58) What is the process of union between two dissimilar gametes?
A) Heterogomy or Anisogamy
59) Name the organisms without sexual reproduction.
A) Blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) and fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
65) What is the male sex organ that produces antherozoids?
A) Antheridium
66) What is the female sex organ that produces eggs?
A) Oogonium
67) What is the process of union between male and female gametes?
A) Fertilization or Syngamy
68) What is the process of fusion of cytoplasm of two gametes?
A) Plasmogamy
69) What is the process of fusion of  two nucleii of opposite gametes?
A) Karyogamy
70) What is the thick walled zygote meant to tide over unfavourable conditions?
A) Oospore
71) What is the fusion of the entire contents of the two gametangia
A) Gametangial copulation
72) Name the fungal groups with gametangialcopulation?
A) Phycomycetes and Ascomycetes?
73) Name some fungi that show gametangial copulation.
A) Mucor, Rhizopus,  Entamophthora
74) How are called the gametangia that take part in gametangial copulation?
A)  Antheridium and oogonium
75) What is the fusion of nuclei of an antheridium with that of a oogonium through a pore or a tube?
A) Gametangial contact
76) Name some fungi that show gametangial contact.
A) Albugo, Pythium, Aspergillus, Penicillium
77) What kind of sexual reproduction takes place in Neurospora?
A) Spermatization
78) What are the male gametes in spermatization?
A) Spermatia
79) What is the spermatia producing structure?
A) Pycnidium or Spermagonium
80) Which is the female gametangium in which spermatization takes place?
A) Ascogonium
81) How is called the spermatia-receptive neck of ascogonium?
A) Trichogyne
82) What is the kind of  reproduction in higher fungi where cells or hyphae fuse?
A) Somatogamy
83) What is the process of fusion of two different  hyphae?
A) Hologamy
84) Who coined the terms homothallism and heterothallism?
A) Blakeslee
85) What kind of mycelia are formed due to plasmogamy of + and - hyphae with delayed karyogamy?
A) Dikaryotic mycelium
86) What is the parasexual method of reproduction in fungi?
A) Plasmogamy
87) What are structures that divide dikaryotic cells in basidiomycetes?
A) Clamp connections
88) Who coined the term clamp connection?
A) Hoffman
89) What is the process of coming together of hyphae into an interconnected network for somatogamy? A) Anastomosis
90) What are the fungi with dikaryotic mycelia?
A) Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes
91) What are the sexual spores of phycomycetes fungi?
A) Oospores
92) What are the sexual spores of zygocomycetes fungi?
A) Zygospores
93) What are the sexual spores of asccomycetes fungi?
A) Ascospores
94) What is the gametangium of ascomycetes?
A) Ascus
95) What is the fruiting body of ascomycetes?
A) Ascocarp
96) What is the spherical ascocarp of Aspergillus without opening?
A) Cleistothecium
97) What is the flask shaped  ascocarp of Claviceps with paraphyses and opening?
A) Perithecium
98) What is the saucer shaped ascocarp of Peziza?
A) Apothecium
99) What are the sexual spores of basidiomycetes fungi?
A) Basidiospores
100) What is the gametangium of basidiomycetes?
A) Basidium
101) What is the fruiting body of basidiomycetes?
A) Basidiocarp
102) What are the most common and edible basidiocarps?
A) Mushrooms
103) What are the fungi that show hook formations to produce dikaryotic mycelium?
A) Ascomycetes
104) What are the hooks that facilitate dikaryotization in ascomycetes?
A) Croziers
105) What are the fungi that show  clamp connections to produce dikaryotic mycelium?
A) Basidiomycetes
106) Which is the most common method of regeneration in filamentous algae and fungi?
A) Fragmentation
107) What is the ability of organisms to survive  unfavourable conditions?
A) Perennation
108) What are the perennating structures in fungi?
A) Rhizomorphs and sclerotia
109) What is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state?
A) Life cycle
110) What is the phrase used to describe two multicellular stages in a life cycle?
A) Alternation of generations
111) Which is the simplest and most primitive type of life-cycle?
A) Haplontic life cycle
112) What is the haploid phase of a multicellular organism?
A) Gametophyte
113) What is the diploid phase multicellular organism?
A) Sporophyte
114) What is the only diploid stage in haplontic life cycle? A) Zygote
115) Which is the meiocyte in a haplontic life cycle?
A) Zygote
116)Where does meiosis take place in diplontic life cycle?
A) Before gamete formation in gametophytes
117) What type of life cycle is most common in bacteria and fungi?
A) Haplontic life cycle
 

REPRODUCTION IN PROTOZOA (48 Qs)


Protozoa are the eukaryotic unicellular organisms with asexual mode of reproduction.  And also show characteristic type of reproduction like autogamy & endomyxis too. Protozoans have better adaptations to survive even in unfavourable conditions.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.




QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What is reproduction?
A) Production of a new "offspring" or individual organisms from parents
2) In which kind of organisms cell division is said to be synonymous with reproduction?
A) Unicellular organisms
3) Which nucleus of Paramecium undergoes amitosis?
A) Macronucleus
4) What kind of cell division is required for binary fission in eukaryotes?
A) Mitosis
5) How is a single population formed from fission is described?
A) Clones
6) How many daughter cells are formed due to binary fission?
A) Two cells
7) Why is Amoeba proteus can be called “immortal”?
A) As it does not die due to natural death on it sown, due to binary fission
8) What is the common type of reproduction in free living protozoans during favourable conditions?
A) Binary fission
9) What is the time gap between two genetations in Amoeba proteus during ideal conditions?
A) 30 minutes to 1 hour
10) What kind of reproduction is common in Euglena?
A) Longitudinal binary fission
11) Euglena divides into two daughter individuals, where one is the plane mirror image of the other. How is this kind of division described?
A) Symmetrogenic division
12) What kind of asexual reproduction takes place in Paramecium?
A) Transverse binary fission
13) What is the ploidy of the macronucleus in Paramecium?
A) Polyploid
14) What is the ploidy of the micronucleus in Paramecium?
A) Diploid
15) How is called the nucleus that is responsible for inheritance from one generation to the other?
A) Generative or germline nucleus
16) Which is the generative nucleus in Paramecium?
A) Micronucleus
17) Which is the non-generative nucleus in Paramecium?
A) Macronucleus
18) By which process micronucleus is divided in Paramecium?
A) Mitosis
19) By which process macronucleus is divided in Paramecium?
A) Amitosis
20) What kind of asexual reproduction is seen in Entamoeba?
A) Binary fission
21) What are the two forms of Entamoeba developed due to binary fission?
A) Minuta forms & Magnaforms
22) What kind of reproduction occurs in Amoeba during unfavourable conditions?
A) Multiple fission & sporulation
23) How are called daughter cells within an Amoeba?
A) Amoebulae
24) How many amoebulae are formed from an Amoeba due to one multiple fission?
A) 500-600
25) What kind of reproduction does take place in an encysted Amoeba or Euglena cell?
A) Multiple fission
26) What is the multiple fission without encystation?
A) Sporulation
27) What are the spores of Amoeba?
A) Pseudopodiospores
28) What is the process of multiple fission in Plasmodium?
A) Schizogony
29) What is the process of  the formation of spirozoites from zygote in Plasmodium? A) Sporogony
30) What is the process of formation of a thick wall around Amoeba or Euglena  during unfavourable conditions?
A) Encystment
31) Name a protozoan with a tetranucleate cyst.
A) Entamoeba histolytica
32) Name a protozoan that exhibits palmelloid stage?
A) Euglena
33) What is actually a  Palmella?
A) An algal genus
34) What are the cells that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametes
35) What is the zygote of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium?
A) Ookinete
36) What is the encysted zygote of the malarial parasite,  Plasmodium?
A) Oocyst
37) Where does sexual reproduction of Plasmodium take place?
A) Midgut of mosquito 
38) What is the fusion of the daughter protoplasts of the same cell without liberation?
A) Autogamy
39) What is the sexual method of reproduction in Paramecium?
A) Conjugation or autogamy
40) What is the chief purpose of autogamy in Paramecium?
A) Rejuvenation of lost vitality due to repeated fissions
41) Which nucleus of Paramecium is involved in conjugation?
A) Micronucleus
42) What kind of cell division is compulsory for conjugation in Paramecium? A) Meiosis
43) What is the sexual method of reproduction in Paramecium aurelia where  internal nuclear reorganization occurs?
A) Endomixis
44) In which organisms autogamy is common?
A) Diatoms, dinoflgellates, Paramecium
45) Which part of the cut Amoeba cell regenerates into a new Amoeba?
A) Nuclear part
46) What is the ability of organisms to survive  unfavourable conditions?
A) Perennation
47) What is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state?
A) Life cycle
48) Which is the simplest and most primitive type of life-cycle?
A) Haplontic life cycle

REPRODUCTION IN ALGAE (101 Qs)


​Algae are the photosynthetic protists, displaying a wide range of reproductive methods like vegetative, asexual and sexual methods through different kinds of spores and perennating structures.

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What is reproduction?
A) Production of a new "offspring" or individual organisms from parents
2) In which kind of organisms cell division is said to be synonymous with reproduction?
A) Unicellular organisms
3) Name a filamentous alga that exhibit scalariform or lateral conjugation.
A) Spirogyra
4) How is a single population formed from fission is described?
A) Clones
5) How is called the nucleus that is responsible for inheritance from one generation to the other?
A) Generative or germline nucleus
6) What is the process of formation of a thick wall around Amoeba or Euglena  during unfavourable conditions?
A) Encystment
7) What kind of vegetative reproduction is seen in  coenobic algae?
A) Autocolony formation
8) Name some algae that produces daughter colonies.
A) Vaucheria,  Hydrodictyon, Pediastrum
9) What is the vegetative method of reproduction in filamentous algae?
A) Fragmentation
10) Name an alga that shows budding.
A) Protosiphon
11) What is a thick-walled dormant vegetative cell with reserve food in blue green algae, Spirogyra and Cladophora?
A) Akinetes
12) Name the green alga with akinetes.
A) Oedogonium
13) What are the motile asexual spores?
A) Zoospores
14) What are locomotory organs of Zoospores?
A) Flagella
15) What are the most common zoospores?
A) Biflagellate zoospores
16) Name any two algal species which produce multiflagellate zoospores?
A) Oedogonium and Vaucheria
17) Name an alga with a  stephanokontean (multiflagellate) type of zoospores?
A) Oedogonium
18) Name an alga with a compound zoospore?
A) Vaucheria
19) What are the modified non-motile zoospores with a thick wall to tide over unfavourable conditions?
A) Aplanospores
20) Name an alga that produces exospores.
A) Chamaesiphon
21) What is the temporary algal colony of daughter cells surrounded by a mucilagenous envelop?
A) Palmella stage
22) Name some algae that exhibit Palmella stage.
A) Chlamydomonas, Ulothrix
23) What is actually a  Palmella?
A) An algal genus
24) What are the thin mini aplanospores of Chlorella?
A) Autospores
25) What are the very thick walled spores developed within the cell of bacteria, blue-green algae or diatoms?
A) Endospores
26) What are the dormant structures produced by bacteria to resist extreme physical and chemical conditions like heat, UV radiation and disinfectants?
A) Endospores
27) What are the endospores of diatoms?
A) Auxospores
28) What are the spores produced by  carposporophytes of red algae?
A) Carpospores
29) What kind of filaments bear carpospores?
A) Gonimoblast filaments
30) Give the name of a red alga that produces carpospores.
A) Batrachospermum
31) What are the non-sporangial spores of red algae?
A) Neutral spores, Paraspores
32) What are the spores formed in monosporangia of red algae like Batrachospermum, Bangia, Porphyra, Porphyridium, etc?
A) Monospores
33) What are the perennating spores in  Xanthophyceae and Bacillariophyceae?
A) Statospores
34) How are the cysts of Vaucheria called?
A) Hypnospores
35) What is the stage of Vaucheria with a series of hypnospores that looks like an algal filament?
A) Gongrosira stage
36) How is called the organism that produces different types of spores?
A) Pleiomorphic or polymorphic
37) What are the spores that are  formed inside special reproductive structures?
A) Endogenous spores or endospores
38) What  is the individual organism with both male and female sex organs or plus and minus strains?
A) Monoecious or homothallic
39) What  is the individual organism with either male or female sex organ; or plus or minus strain?
A) Dioecious or heterothallic
40) What are the cells that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametes
41) What are the organs that take part in sexual reproduction?
A) Gametangia
42) What are the male gametangia?
A) Antheridia
43) What are the female gametangia?
A) Oogonia
44) What are the male gametes?
A) Antherozoids, spermatozoids or sperms
45) What are the female gametes?
A) Ova or eggs
46) What is the process of union of gametes in which both or any one of the gametes is motile?
A) Planogametic copulation
47) What are the morphologically and physiologically similar gametes?
A) Isogametes
48) What is the process of union between two similar gametes?
A) Isogamy
49) In which species quadriflagellate zygospores are formed due to isogamy?
A) Chlamydomonas
50) What are the algae that never produce zoospores?
A) Red algae  (Rhodophyceae)
51) What are the morphologically and physiologically dissimilar male and female gametes?
A) Anisogametes or heterogametes
52) What is the process of union between two dissimilar gametes?
A) Heterogomy or Anisogamy
53) Name some algae that exhibit anisogamy.
A) Chlamydomonas,  Spirogyra,  Ectocarpus, etc
54) What is the process of union of antherozoid and  egg?
A) Oogamy
55) What is the male sex organ that produces antherozoids?
A) Antheridium
56) What is the female sex organ that produces eggs?
A) Oogonium
57) In which alga antheridia and oogonia are formed in chains?
A) Oedogonium
58) In which alga antheridia and oogonia are formed in conceptacles?
A) Sargassum
59) What kind of algae have spermatia, corogonia and auxiliary cells?
A) Red algae
60) Which alga show highest degree of specialization with respect to sexual structures?
A) Chara
61) What is the process of union between male and female gametes?
A) Fertilization or Syngamy
62) What is the process of fusion of cytoplasm of two gametes?
A) Plasmogamy
63) What is the process of fusion of  two nucleii of opposite gametes?
A) Karyogamy
64) Give some examples of algae showing oogamy.
A) Oedogonium, Vaucheria, Chara, Polysiphonia,
65) What are the amoeboid gametes of Spirogyra?
A) Aplanogametes
66) What is the process of fusion of aplanogametes Spirogyra through a conjugation tube?
A) Aplanogamy or conjugation
67) What is the thick walled zygote meant to tide over unfavourable conditions?
A) Oospore
68) What is the fusion of the entire contents of the two gametangia
A) Gametangial copulation
69) How are called the gametangia that take part in gametangial copulation?
A)  Antheridium and oogonium
70) What is the process of fusion of two vegetative cells of Chlamydomonas?
A) Hologamy
71) What kind of conjugation takes place between two filaments of spirogyra?
A) Scalariform conjunction
72) What kind of conjugation takes place between different cells within a filament of spirogyra?
A) Lateral conjugation 
73) In which organisms autogamy is common?
A) Diatoms, dinoflgellates, Paramecium
74) What is the process of the conversion of female gametes into zygotes without fusion?
A) Parthenogenesis
75) What kind of spores are formed due to parthenogenesis?
A) Azygospores or parthenospores
76) Name the algae showing parthenogenesis.
A) Spirogyra, Oedogonium
77) Which is the most common method of regeneration in filamentous algae and fungi?
A) Fragmentation
78) What is the ability of organisms to survive  unfavourable conditions?
A) Perennation
79) In which algal species tubers or tuberous bulbils and amylum Stars are the perennating structures?
A) Chara
80) What is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state?
A) Life cycle
81) What is the phrase used to describe two multicellular stages in a life cycle?
A) Alternation of generations
82) Which is the simplest and most primitive type of life-cycle?
A) Haplontic life cycle
83) What is the haploid phase of a multicellular organism?
A) Gametophyte
84) What is the diploid phase multicellular organism?
A) Sporophyte
85) What is the only diploid stage in haplontic life cycle? A) Zygote
86) Which is the meiocyte in a haplontic life cycle?
A) Zygote
87) What are the algae that exhibit haplontic life cycle?
A) Chlamydomonas, Ulothrix, Spirogyra, Oedogonium, Chara, etc
88) What is the only haploid stage in diplontic life cycle?
A) Gametes
89)Where does meiosis take place in diplontic life cycle?
A) Before gamete formation in gametophytes
90) Name some algae that exhibit diplontic life cycle?
A) Fucus, Sargassum, Codium, Bryopsis, etc.
91) In what kind of organisms haploid gametophytic generation alternates with diploid sporophytic generation?
A) Haplo-diplontic life cycle
92) How is called the life cycle with two haploid phases and one diploid phase?
A) Haplobiontic life cycle
93) Name some algae that exhibit haplobiontic life cycle?
A) Batrachospermum, Coleochaetae
94) How is called the sporophyte of Batrachospermum that produces carpospores?
A) Carposporophyte
95) How is called the life cycle with two diploid phases and one haploid phase?
A) Diplobiontic life cycle
96) Name an alga that exhibit diplobiontic life cycle?
A) Polysiphonia
97) How is called the sporophyte of Polysiphonia  that produces tetraspores?
A) Tetrasporophyte
98) What kind of algae have three alternation of generations?
A) Red algae  (Rhodophyceae)
99) In what kind of life cycle zygotic meiosis takes place?
A) Haplontic life cycle
100) In what kind of life cycle gametic meiosis takes place?
A) Diplontic life cycle
101) In what kind of life cycle sporic meiosis takes place?
A) Haplodiplontic life cycle

REPRODUCTION IN BACTERIA (45 Qs)


Bacteria are the prokaryotic organisms with both asexual and sexual modes of reproduction, primarily binary fission and endospore formation to spread their progeny both during favourable and unfavourable conditions.

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What is reproduction?
A) Production of a new "offspring" or individual organisms from parents
2) In which kind of organisms cell division is said to be synonymous with reproduction?
A) Unicellular organisms
3) What is the process of transfer of a portion of genetic material (DNA) from a donor cell to a recipient cell?
A) Genetic recombination or parasexuality
4) What are the different sexual methods of genetic recombination in bacteria?
A) Conjugation,  transformation & transduction
5) What kind of sexual reproduction in bacteria is taken place due to absorption?
A) Transformation
6) What kind of sexual reproduction in bacteria is taken place due to physical contact?
A) Conjugation
7) What kind of sexual reproduction in bacteria is taken place due to a bacteriophage?
A) Transduction
8) How is called the gene transfer due to direct bacterial cell contact?
A) Conjugation
9) Who first reported  conjugation in E.coli?
A) Lederberg and Tatum
10) Who first developed mutant strains of E.coli?
A) Lederberg and Tatum
11) Which organelle forms a conjugation tube between two bacterialcells?
A) Sex pilus
12) What are the extrachromosomal factors in bacteria?
A) Episomes
13) What are the fertility factors in donor or male bacterial cells?
A)  F+ & Hfr
14) Who introduced the term Hfr male?
A) Cavalli
15) What are the fertility factors in recipient or female bacterial cells?
A)  F-
16) By which process F- female bacterium can be converted into F+ male?
A) Conjugation
17) What is the ploidy of the vegetative cells of bacteria?
A) Haploid
18) What is the process by which bacteria can take up exogenous DNA from their environment?
A) Transformation
19) Who first studied transformation in Diplococcus pneumonia?
A) Griffith
20) What are the non-virulent strains of Diplococcos pneumonia?
A) R-type (Rough non-capsulated)
21) What are the virulent strains of Diplococcos pneumonia?
A) S-type (Smooth capsulated)
22) Who demonstrated the transforming principle in pneumonia bacterial transformation as DNA, in mice?
A) Avery, Mac Leod and Mc Carty
23) Who demonstrated virus infection agent as DNA in E.coli bacteria ?
A) Hershey and Chase
24) Which bacteriophage was used by Hershey and Chase?
A) T2 phage
25) What were the radioactive elements used by Hershey and Chase?
A) P32 & P35
26) What is the process by which  genes of one bacterium transferred to the other through a bacteriophage?
A) Transduction
27) Who first reported transduction in Salmonella typhimeurium?
A) Zinder and Lederberg
28) What is the process of permanent carrying of a phage DNA by a bacterium?
A) Lysogeny
29) What is the non-infective virus genome in the host genome?
A) Prophage
30) What is the most common type of reproduction in bacteria?
A) Binary fission
31) What kind of cell division is required for binary fission in prokaryotes?
A) Amitosis
32) How is a single population formed from fission is described?
A) Clones
33) How many daughter cells are formed due to binary fission?
A) Two cells
34) What is the minimum time required for a bacterial population to double?
A) 9.8 minutes
35) What is the time gap between two bacterial divisions?
A) 20-30 minutes
36) In what kind of organisms DNA replication and septum formation occur simultaneously?
A) Prokaryotes  (Bacteria)
37) What are the three wall layers around the bacterial cyst?
A) Exine, intine and mucopeptide wall
38) Name some bacteria that show budding.
A) Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes
39) What is a thick-walled dormant vegetative cell with reserve food in blue green algae or cyanobacteria?
A) Akinetes
40) What are the asexually producrd detached gliding filaments of blue green algae or cyanobacteria?
A) Hormogonia
41) Name a bluegreen alga or cyanobacteria that forms hormogonia.
A) Nostoc
42) What are the structures that separate hormogonia from the main filament?
A) Separation discs
43) What are the bacteria that reproduce through conidia?
A) Actinomycetes and Streptomyces
44) What are the very thick walled spores developed within the cell of bacteria, blue-green algae or diatoms?
A) Endospores
45) What are the dormant structures produced by bacteria to resist extreme physical and chemical conditions like heat, UV radiation and disinfectants?
A) Endospores

VIRUS REPLICATION (28 Qs)


Viruses, the connecting link between abiotic and biotic entities have no power of reproduction except multiplying themselves in the host cell.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.




QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What kind of organisms never reproduce themselves? 
A) Viruses
2) What kind of organisms need a host cell to reproduce?
A) Viruses
3) What kind of viruses multiply in the nucleus of the host cell?
A) DNA viruses
4) What kind of viruses multiply in the cytoplasm of the host cell?
A) RNA viruses
5) Who classified viruses on the basis of their replication?
A) David Baltimore
6) What are the six steps in the lytic virus cycle?
A) Attachment, penetration, uncoating, replication, assembly, and release.
7) By which process the viral particle gets attached to the host cell membrane?
A) Adsorption
8) What is the process of  injection of virus genome into host cell?
A) Penetration or Transmission
9) By which process the virus is engulfed by the host cell?
A) Endocytosis
10) What are the four kinds of genetic material in viruses?
A) Double-stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA, single-stranded DNA & single-stranded RNA
11) Which cellular process of the lost cell is under the control of lytic viruses?
A) Protein synthesis
12) What kind of RNA is transcribed due to virus infection?
A) mRNA
13) Which enzyme catalyses mRNA formation?
A) RNA translase
14) What is the process of release of virus progeny from the host?
A) Release or shedding
15) What is the last stage of a virus cycle?
A) Release or shedding
16) What is the virus cycle in which the host cell is destroyed to liberate the virus progeny?
A) Lytic cycle
17) What is the virus cycle in which the host cell is not destroyed but the virus DNA remain to replicate along with the host DNA?
A) Lysogenic cycle
18) What are the bacteriophages with lysogenic cycle?
A) Temperate phages
19) Give the name of a phage that shows lysogenic cycle in E.coli?
A) Lambda phage
20) What is the integrated state of virus genome with the bacterial genome?
A) Prophage
4) What kind of viruses multiply in the nucleus of the host cell?
A) DNA viruses
5) What kind of viruses multiply in the cytoplasm of the host cell?
A) RNA viruses
6) Who classified viruses on the basis of their replication?
A) David Baltimore
7) What are the six steps in the lytic virus cycle?
A) Attachment, penetration, uncoating, replication, assembly, and release.
8) By which process the viral particle gets attached to the host cell membrane?
A) Adsorption
9) What is the process of  injection of virus genome into host cell?
A) Penetration or Transmission
10) By which process the virus is engulfed by the host cell?
A) Endocytosis
11) What are the four kinds of genetic material in viruses?
A) Double-stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA, single-stranded DNA & single-stranded RNA
12) Which cellular process of the lost cell is under the control of lytic viruses?
A) Protein synthesis
13) What kind of RNA is transcribed due to virus infection?
A) mRNA
14) Which enzyme catalyses mRNA formation?
A) RNA translase
15) What is the process of release of virus progeny from the host?
A) Release or shedding
16) What is the last stage of a virus cycle?
A) Release or shedding
17) What is the virus cycle in which the host cell is destroyed to liberate the virus progeny?
A) Lytic cycle
18) What is the virus cycle in which the host cell is not destroyed but the virus DNA remain to replicate along with the host DNA?
A) Lysogenic cycle
19) What are the bacteriophages with lysogenic cycle?
A) Temperate phages
20) Give the name of a phage that shows lysogenic cycle in E.coli?
A) Lambda phage
21) What is the integrated state of virus genome with the bacterial genome?
A) Prophage
22) Who demonstrated virus infection agent as DNA in E.coli bacteria ?
A) Hershey and Chase
23) Which bacteriophage was used by Hershey and Chase?
A) T2 phage
24) What were the radioactive elements used by Hershey and Chase?
A) P32 & P35
25) What is the process by which  genes of one bacterium transferred to the other through a bacteriophage?
A) Transduction
26) Who first reported transduction in Salmonella typhimeurium?
A) Zinder and Lederberg
27) What is the process of permanent carrying of a phage DNA by a bacterium?
A) Lysogeny
28) What is the non-infective virus genome in the host genome?
A) Prophage

Friday, 26 August 2016

CELL CYCLE (215 Qs)


The cell is the structural and functional unit of all organisms. The growth and development of an organism depend on the growth and development of the cell. The as an entity shows its own life cycle on par with the life cycle of the organism to which it belongs.

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What is the series of events in a cell that tames place from one division to the other?
A) Cell cycle
2) What is the way to avoid ageing or senescence in living organisms?
A) Cell division
3) By which process a certain degree of plasticity and immortality is provided to an organism?
A) Cell division
4) What is the direct cell division?
A) Amitosis
5) What is the indirect cell division?
A) Mitosis
6) What is the most primitive form of cell division?
A) Amitosis
7) What is the chief method of multiplication and growth in unicellular organisms?
A) Amitosis
8) Which is the most common type of amitosis in unicellular organisms?
A) Fission (Binary fission)
9) What are the three periods of a cell cycle in bacteria?
A) B, C, D phases
10) When do DNA replication and cell division take place in bacteria?
A) D phase
11) What are the two periods  of a cell cycle in an eukaryotic cell?
A) Interphase & Cell division phase
12) What is the phase of non-apparent cell division or resting phase?
A) Interphase
13) What is the metabollically most active phase of the cell cycle?
A) Interphase
14) Who referred interphase as the energy phase?
A) Berril and Huskins
15) What is the preparatory phase in the cell cycle?
A) Interphase
16) What is the inter-mitotic phase?
A) Interphase
17) What percentage of the cell cycle  is the interphase?
A) 90%
18) What are the three sub-phases of interphase?
A) G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase
19) What are the gap phases of the cell cycle?
A) G1 & G2 phases
20) What is the synthetic phase of the cell cycle?
A) S phase
21) What is the point at which the previous stage is stopped and the next stage of the cell cycle starts?
A) Restriction point
22) Who discovered cleavage in animal cells?
A) Prevost and Dumas
23) What are the two types of cell divisions in eukaryotic cells?
A) Mitosis & Meiosis
24)Who discovered mitosis? A) W Flemming
25) Which is the somatic cell division?
A) Mitosis
26) In what kind of cell division daughter cells are formed with similar sizes and chromosomal sets?
A) Mitosis
27) In which phase of the cell cycle RNAs are produced?
A) G1 phase
28) In which phase DNA replication occurs?
A) S phase
29) In which phase of the cell cycle organelles are produced?
A) G1 & G2 pleases
30) In which phase of the cell cycle centrioles and mitotic spindle tubules are formed?
A) G2 phase
31) What is the period of intense synthesis and growth in a cell cycle?
A) Interphase
32) What are the two periods of cell division?
A) Karyokinesis & Cytokinesis
33) Who discovered karyokinesis and cytokinesis as two phases of a cell division?
A) Remak and Kolliker
34) Who introducrd the term karyokinesis?
A) Schleicher
35) Who introduced the term cytokinesis?
A) Whiterman
36) What percentage of the cell cycle is mitosis?
A) 10%
37) What are the four phases of karyokinesis?
A) Prophase, metaphase,  anaphase & telophase
38) What is the time period of a bacterial cell cycle?
A) 20 minutes
39) What is the time period of a cell cycle in onion root tip cells?
A) 20 hours
40) What is the time period human cell cycle in culture at 37°C?
A) 20 hours
41) What is the time period required for a human cell to complete  one mitotic phase in culture at 37°C?
A) 1 hour
42) What are the never dividing cells in the human body?
A) Nerve cells or neurons
43) Which is the longest mitotic phase?
A) Prophase
44) In which phase of mitotic division chromosomes appear?
A) Prophase
45) In which mitotic phase chromatin reticulum reappear?
A) Telophase
46) What is the point of attachment of chromatids?
A) Centromere
47) In which mitotic phase disorganization of the nucleus takes place?
A) Prophase
48) In which mitotic phase reorganization of the nucleus takes place?
A) Telophase
49) Which phase is the reverse of prophase?
A) Telophase
50) When do spindle fibres start appearing in mitosis?
A) Metaphase
51) What is the epicentre of spindle formation during cell division?
A) Centriole
52) Which cell organelle is meant for organizing spindle fibres?
A) Centriole
53) Which cell organelles are the basic components of spindle fibres?
A) Microtubules
54) How many centrioles are required per a cell to form spindle fibres?
A) Two
55) How is called a centriole with radiating microtubules at the helm of spindle fibres?
A) Aster
56) How do you call the mitosis with asters?
A) Astral mitosis
57) How do you call the mitosis without asters?
A) Anastral mitosis
58) In what kind of cells astral mitosis is common?
A) Animal cells
59) In what kind of cells anastral mitosis is common? A) Plant cells
60) Why does anastral mitosis take place in plant cells?
A) Due to absence of centrioles
61) What is the junction of spindle fibres and chromatids ?
A) Centromere
62) What is the mode of arrangement centromeres on the equatorial plate?
A) Radial
63) At which stage of cell division the equatorial plate is broken?
A) Anaphase
64) Which is the shortest phase of mitosis?
A) Anaphase
65) When does the division of centromeres take place?
A) Anaphase
66) When do chromosomes reach opposite poles?
A) Anaphase
67) What are the different shapes of chromosomes during anaphase?
A) V, J & I shaped
68) What are V-shaped chromosomes?
A) Metacentric or isobranchial chromosomes
69) What are J-shaped chromosomes?
A) Subetacentric or  heterobranchial chromosomes
70) What are I-shaped chromosomes?
A) Acrocentric chromosomes
71) What is the division of the nucleus?
A) Karyokinesis
72) What is the division of  cytoplasm?
A) Cytokinesis
73) In what kind of cells cytokinesis stars with furrows?
A) Animal cells
74) In what kind of cells cytokinesis  is through a cell plate formation?
A) Plant cells
75) What is the equatorial plate impregnated with spindle fibres in plants?
A) Phragmoplast
76) Which cell organelle secretes cell wall components?
A) Golgi apparatus
77) Which cell organelle is required to form pasmodesmata?
A) Endoplasmic Reticulum
78) What is the extension of endoplasmic reticulum in plasmodesmata?
A) Desmotubule
79) What kind of cell division leads to genetic stability?
A) Mitosis
80) What kind of reproduction occurs due to mitosis?
A) Asexual reproduction
81) What kind of reproduction occurs due to meiosis?
A) Sexual reproduction
82) What is the basis for growth,  repair and replacement of somatic cells?
A) Mitosis
83) Which is the equational or homoeotypic cell division?
A) Mitosis
84) Which is the reduction or heterotypic cell division?
A) Meiosis
85) In what kind of cell division one karyokinesis and one cytokinesis occur?
A) Mitosis
86) In what kind of cell division two karyokineses and one cytokinesis occur?
A) Meiosis
87) When is the chromosome number reduced to half during meiosis?
A) Meiosis I (Anaphase I)
88) What are the five subphases of meiosis I in sequence?
A) Leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene & diakinesis
89) Which is the reduction phase of the meiosis?
A) Meiosis-I
90) Which is the equational phase of the meiosis?
A) Meiosis-II
91) Which phase of meiosis is similar to that of mitosis?
A) Meiosis-II
92) In which subphase of meiosis chromomeres appear over chromosomes?
A) Leptotene
93) What are the similar chromosomes?
A) Homologous chromosomes
94) What is the pairing of homologous chromosomes? A) Synapsis
95) Which protein binds sister chromatids together?
A) Cohesin
96) Which enzyme separtes sister chromatids?
A) Separase
97) When does synapsis of homologous chromosomes take place?
A) Leptotene
98) How are the paired homologous chromosomes called?
A) Bivalents
99) When are chromosomal bivalents and tetrads are formed?
A) Zygotene stage
100) Which is the longest subphase of prophase-I?
A) Pachytene
101) When does crossing over take place?
A) Pachytene stage
102) When does new gene combinations occur during meiosis?
A) Pachytene stage
103) Which process leads to new gene combinations in a chromosome?
A) Crossing over
104) What are X-shaped structures formed after crossing over of homologous chromosomes?
A) Chiasmata
105) When does chiasmata  apper in meiosis?
A) Diplotene stage
106) When does terminalization of chiasmata take place?
A) Diakinesis
107) In what kind of cell division centromeres divide?
A) Mitosis & Meiosis-II
108) In what kind of cell division centromeres do not divide?
A) Meiosis-I
109) Which is the meiotic mitosis?
A) Meiosis-II
110) In what kind of cell division genetically similar daughter cells are formed?
A) Mitosis
111) In which type of cell division centromeres lie on the equator to let chromosomal arms face the poles?
A) Mitosis & Meiosis-II
112) In which type of cell division centromeres lie  towards the poles to let chromosomal arms face the equator?
A) Meiosis-I
113) What kind of cell division leads to the formation of haploid gametes?
A) Meiosis
114) How many daughter cells are formed after mitosis?
A) 2
115) How many daughter cells are formed after meiosis?
A) 4
116) What is the principal means of reproduction in unicellular organisms?
A) Cell division
117) In what kind of cell division the daughter cells have same ploidy?
A) Mitosis
118) At what stage of cell cycle histone proteins are formed?
A) S phase
119) In which kind of cell division chromosomal dyads appear along the equator?
A) Mitosis & Meiosis-II
120) In which kind of cell division chromosomal tetrads appear along the equator?
A) Meiosis-I
121) What kind of cell division leads to the formation of pollen dyads or tetrads?
A) Meiosis
122) In which phase of cell division random distribution of chromosomes take place?
A) Anaphase
123) Which type of cell division occur in all types of cells?
A) Mitosis
124) In what kind of mitosis the nuclear envelope is broken?
A) Open mitosis
125) In what kind of mitosis the nuclear envelope is not broken?
A) Closed mitosis
126) Name a multicellular fungus with closed type of mitosis?
A) Aspergillus nidulans
127) Name a unicellular fungus with closed type of mitosis?
A) Saccharomyces cerevisiae
128) What is the process of replication of DNA during S phase without the subsequent completion of mitosis and cytokinesis. ?
A) Endoreplication
129) What is the result of endoreplication followed by karyokinesis but not cytokinesis in fungi and slime molds?
A) Coenocyteformation
130) What will be the result of repeated replication of DNA without forming new nuclei in telophase?
A) Polyploidy & Polyteny
131) Which process leads to the formation of "giant" chromosomes?
A) Polyteny
132) How many DNA strands does a Polytene chromosome in salivary glands of Drosophila  possess?
A) 2048
133) What is the phenomenon of occurrence of more than two sets of chromosomes in a cell?
A) Polyploidy
134) Where are the polyploid cells occur in human beings?
A) Hepatocytes & megakaryocytes
135) What are the giant human cells that are formed due to seven S phases with nucleus containing ploidy 128n chromosomes?
A) Megakaryocytes
136) What are formed due to the fragmentation of megakaryocytes?
A) Blood platelets
137) Which hormone regulates the cell cycle?
A) Cyclin
138) Which enzyme regulates the cell cycle?
A) Kinase
139) Who got Nobel Prize for the discovery of cyclin and CDKs?
A) Hartwell, Hunt, and Nurse
140) What are CDKs?
A) Cyclin-dependent kinases
141) What are the major control switches for the cell cycle?
A) Cyclin and CDKs
142) What is the anaphase-promoting complex (APC)? A) Cyclosome
143) What is the result of mitosis followed by too many or too few chromosomes?
A) Aneuploidy
144) What are the five phases of occasionally dividing cells?
A) G1, G0, S, G2 & M phase
145) How is called the G0  stage cell?
A) Quiescent cell
146) What are the common quiescent cells in human body?
A) Erythrocytes, neurons, myocytes, adipocytes,  etc
147) What are the common quiescent cells in human body that renter G1 phase from G0 phase after getting stimulus?
A) T- & B- lymphocytes
148) What are the only two phases in the cell cycle of quiescent cells?
A) G1 & G0 phases
149) Which mutation is the most frequent cause for cancer?
A) p53 mutation
150) Which disease is caused due to non-regulation of the cell cycle?
A) Cancer
151) What are the cancer causing genes?
A) Oncogenes
152) What is meant by uncontrolled, abnormal growth or division of cells?
A) Cancer
153) What is the abnormal growth of a cell?
A) Hypertrophy
154) What is the abnormal growth of a tissue due to uncontrolled cell divisions?
A) Hyperplasia
155) What is the symptom of unwanted growth of a cell?
A) Tumour
156) What are the non-cancerous tumours?
A) Benign tumours
157) What are the cancerous tumours?
A) Malignant tumours
158) What is the process of transfer of cancerous cells from one part to the other part of a body?
A) Metastasis
159) What kind of cells never enter G0 phases, but show repeated indefinite cell cycles?
A) Cancer cells
160) What is the cancer of epithelial cells?
A) Carcinoma
162) What are the body parts that may be affected by carcinoma?
A) Breast, lung, pancreas, stomach, etc
163) What is the cancer of muscle cells?
A) Sarcoma
164) What are the body parts that may be affected by Sarcoma?
A) Muscles & lymph nodes
165) What is the cancer of lymphocytes  (WBC)?
A) Leukaemia
166) What are the cancer causing agents?
A) Carcinogens
167) What kind of strong radioactive rays are used to kill cancerous cells?
A) X-rays & Gamma rays
168) What are the physical carcinogens?
A) Radioactive rays
169) Name the fungus toxin or mycotoxin that causes cancer.
A) Aflatoxin
170) What are the biological cancer causing agents?
A) Viruses
171) What is meant by apoptosis?
A) Programmed or suicidal death of a cell
172) At what stage of cell cycle sister chromatids are formed?
A) S stage
173) When does disjunction  of chromatids take place?
A) Anaphase
174) How is called a set of four chromatids in a homologous bivalent?
A) Tetrad
175) What is the number of possible arrangements of chromosomes during metaphase-I of meiosis-I, if n is the number of chromosomes in a haploid set?
A) 2n
176) What is the number of possible arrangements of chromosomes in human cells during metaphase-I of meiosis-I
A) 8 million
177) How does meiosis generate genetic diversity?
A) crossing over during  Meiosis-I, random alignment of chromosomes in Meiosis-I and random alignment of the sister chromatids at Meiosis-II
178) What is must for the cell division to happen?
A) Doubling of genome (DNA) during S phase
179) By which process doubling of genome  (DNA) occur?
A) Replication
180) When does the genome become half?
A) Mitosis
181) Which alkaloid is used to interfere with spindle formation and cell division?
A) Colchicine
182) Which nutrient element has its marked effect of the size and structure of chromosomes?
A) Phosphorus
183) What is the time required for a typical eukaryotic cell to divide once?
A) Approximately every 24 hours
184) What is the time required for a yeast cell to divide once?
A) Approximately every 90 minutes
185) Which ratio decides a cell to divide?
A) N:C ratio
186) What is N:C ratio or N/C ratio?
A) Nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
187) What is N:C ratio of blasts for the formation of
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and megakaryocytes?
A) 4:1
188) Who discovered mitosis?
A) Otto Butschli
189) Who coined the term  "mitosis? "
A) Walther Flemming
190) Who described mitosis  for the first time?
A) Mayzel
191) What is the literal meaning of the word mitosis?
A) "warp thread"
192) What is genome replication without cell division?
A) Endoreplication, endoreduplication or polytenization
193) What is called the repeated endoreplication without  mitosis?
A) Endocycling
194) What is mitosis without karyokinesis and cytokinesis
A) Endomitosis
195) What is the advantage of Endomitosis?
A) Polyploidy
196) What are the cells that undergo meiosis?
A) Meiocytes or germ cells
197) What are the meiocytes in anthers?
A) Pollen Mother Cells or Microspore Mother Cells
197) What are the meiocytes in gynoecium?
A) Pollen Mother Cells or Microspore Mother Cells
A) Megaspore Mother Cells
198) What are the meiocytes in testes?
A) Spermatocytes (in seminiferous tubles)
199) What are the meiocytes in human ovaries?
A) Oocytes
200) What kind of cell divisions are required to form liquid endosperm in coconut water?
A) Free Nuclear Divisions
200) What kind of cell divisions are required to form solid endosperm in coconut meat?
A) Cellular  Divisions
201) What is the process of exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes?
A) Crossing over
202) What kind of alleles are formed due to crossing over?
A) Recombined alleles
203) What are the versions of genes in a gene pair?
A) Allele
204) Who described crossing over for the first time?
A) Thomas Hunt Morgan
205) Who first demonstrated physical basis of crossing over?
A) Harriet Creighton and Barbara McClintockin
206) What could be the DNA repair process in meiosis?
A) Crossing over
207) Which reproductive method of bacteria is similar to crossing over?
A) Transformtion
208) What is the contact between two chromatids that will undergo crossing-over?
A) Chiasma
209) Which organelle regulates the spindle formation in animal cells?
A) Centrosome
210) How many centrioles does a centrosome provide for spindle formation?
A) Two
211) In what kind of life cycle zygotic meiosis takes place?
A) Haplontic life cycle
212) In what kind of life cycle gametic meiosis takes place?
A) Diplontic life cycle
213) In what kind of life cycle sporic meiosis takes place?
A) Haplodiplontic life cycle
214) What are the cells or individuals that are diploid?
A) Diplonts
215) What are the cells or individuals that are formed due to meiosis?
A) Haplonts

Monday, 22 August 2016

CELL - GENERAL (175 Qs)


The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in any organism. It is a unit quantity of living substance that is protoplasm bounded a unit membrane. The structure and functioning of all cells together reflect on the existence or well-being of the entire organism.

Now read the following questions and answers and suggest some more questions for the aspirants for competitive exams. Please help us rectify the mistakes and improve the content.


QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1) What is the structural and functional unit of all organisms?
A) Cell
2) When did living cells originate on the Earth?
A) 3.5 billion years ago.
3) What is the smallest unit of life?
A) Cell
4) What are the building blocks of life?
A) Cells
5) Which branch of science deals with the study of cells?
A) Cytology
6) Which branch of science deals with the study of all aspecys of cells?
A) Cell biology
7) Who discovered cell?
A) Robert Hooke
8) Who coined the term cell?
A) Robert Hooke
9) With what Robert Hooke compared the cells in the cork?
A) With cells in the Christian monastery
10) Who discovered living cells?
A) Anton Van Leeuenhoek
11) Who discovered bacteria and protozoa?
A) Anton Van Leeuenhoek
12) Who coined the term cell wall?
A) Robert Hooke
13) What was the famous book written by Robert Hooke?
A) Micrographia
14) Who gave the first idea of cell theory?
A) Dutrochet
15) Who gave the cell theory for plants?
A) MJ Schleiden
16) Who gave the cell theory for animals?
A) Theodore Schwann
17) Who gave the cell theory?
A) Schleiden & Schwann
18) Who gave the cell lineage theory?
A) Rudolf Virchow
19) What is the famous phrase of Rudolf Virchow?
A) Omnis cellula e cellulae (all cells are formed from pre-existing cells)
20) Which discovery was a proof to Virchow's cell lineage theory?
A) Mitosis
21) Name some organisms which are exception to the cell theory?
A) Viruses, Paramecium, Rhizopus, Vaucheria
22) Who proposed organism theory?
A) Sachs
24) What are the mammalian cells without respiration and replication?
A) RBCs
25) What are the mammalian cells without a nucleus?
A) RBCs
26) What are the plant cells without nucleus?
A) Sieve Tubes
27) Why the RBCs cannot replicate?
A) Nucleus or DNA is absent
28) Why the RBCs cannot respire?
A) Absence of mitochondria
29) What are the nucleated animal cells which cannot differentiate?
A) Nerve cells
30) What is the ability of a cell to reproduce to a complete organism?
A) Totipotency
31) Who induced morphogenesis in plant callus for the first time?
A) Skoog & Miller
32) Who established the concept of cellular totipotency?
A) Steward et al.
33) What are the energy transducers in plant cells?
A) Chloroplasts
34) Why are the smaller cells metabolically efficient?
A) Higher nucleo-plasmic ratio & surface volume ratio
35) What would happen to the surface volume ratio if the size of a cell is doubled?
A) Surface volume ratio decreases by half
36) What is the chief function of microvilli?
A) to increase surface area for absorption
37) What is a rod shaped bacterium?
A)  Bacillus
38) What is a spherical shaped bacterium?
A)  Coccos
39) What is a comma shaped bacterium?
A)  Vibrium
40) What is a spiral shaped bacterium?
A)  Spirillum
41) Name the prokaryote whose shape keeps on changing?
A) Mycoplasma
42) Name the protozoan whose shape keeps on changing?
A) Amoeba
43) What are the amoeboid cells in the human body?
A) Leucocytes  (WBCs)
44) Which is the largest unicellular organism?
A) Acetabularia (marine alga)
45) Which is the umbrella shaped unicellular alga?
A) Acetabularia
46) Which is the longest cell?
A) Fibre cell of Boehmeria nivea (Ramie)
47) Which is the longest animal  cell?
A) Nerve cell
48)Which is the smallest cell?
A) PPLO (Pleuro Pneumonia Like Organisms)
49)Which is the largest cell?
A) Ostrich egg
50) Who coined the terms prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
A) Dougherty
51) What are the organisms with an indistinct diffused nucleus?
A) Prokaryotes
52) What are the organisms with a distinct nucleus?
A) Eukaryotes
53) Which is the prokaryotic organism without a cell wall?
A) Mycoplasma
54) Which is the smallest prokaryotic cell?
A) PPLO (Pleuro Pneumonia Like Organisms)
55) Where is a double stranded circular naked DNA present?
A) Prokaryotes,  mitochondria & plastids  (chloroplasts)
57) What are the organisms without membranous organelles?
A) Prokaryotes
58) What are the cells within cells?
A) Mitochondria and chloroplasts
59) What are the organelles within organelles?
A) Ribosomes in mitochondria and chloroplasts
60) Where are 70S ribosomes present?
A) Prokaryotes,  mitochondria and plastids  (chloroplasts)
61) What are cyanobacteria? A) Blue-green algae
62) What are the units of golgi apparatus in plant cells?
A) Dictyosomes
63) What kind of microbodies are absent in animal cells?
A) Glyoxysomes
64) What is the outermost layer of animal cells?
A) Cell membrane
65) What is the outermost layer of plant  cells?
A) Cell wall
66) What is the biggest organelle in animal cells?
A) Nucleus
67) What is the biggest organelle in mature plant  cells?
A) Vacuole
68) Why are animal cells heterotrophic?
A) Due to absence of chloroplasts
69) Why are plant cells autotrophic?
A) Due to presence of chloroplasts
70) What kind of cells possess centrioles?
A) Animal cells
71) Why do animal cells burst when they are kept in hypotonic solution?
A) Due to lack of cell walls
72) Which is the unit of measurement in light microscopes?
A) Micron
73) What is the unit of measurement in electron microscopes?
A) Angstrom
74) What are the organisms that can be seen only under electron microscope?
A) Viruses and PPLOs or mycoplasmas
75) What are the cell structures that can be seen under light microscope?
A) Cell wall, nucleus,  chloroplasts and mitochondria
76) What are the cell structures that can be seen under electron microscope only?
A) Ribosomes,  endoplasmic reticulum,  cell membrane, lysosomes,  microbodies, etc
77) What are the jokers of the plant kingdom?
A) Mycoplasmas
78) In what kind of organisms the respiratory enzymes areassociated with cell membranes?
A) Prokaryotes
79) What are the structures in bacterial cells comparable with mitochondria?
A) Mesosomes
80) What is the primitive nucleus of prokaryotes?
A) Chromomere, genophore, incipient nucleus or nucleoid
81) What type of cell division is common among prokaryotic cells?
A) Amitosis
82) What type of cell divisions are common among eukaryotic cells?
A) Mitosis & meiosis
83) What kind of cells have 80S ribosomes?
A) Eukaryoticcells
84) How many cells a human body has?
A) more than 10 trillion cells
85) What were the first living forms on the Earth?
A) Prokaryotes
86) What are the extra-chromosomal DNA elements in bacteria?
A) Plasmids
87) Where are antibiotic resistance genes located in bacteria?
A) On plasmids
88) What is the main distinguishing feature of eukaryotes as compared to prokaryotes?
A)  Compartmentalization (organelles)
89) What is the main organizer and maintainer of the eukaryotic cell's shape?
A) Cytoskeleton
90) What are parts of the cell which are specialized for different vital functions?
A) Organelles
91) What are the solitary cell organelles in a typical cell?
A) Nucleus & Golgi apparatus
92) What are the liquid filled spaces surrounded by a membrane?
A) Vacuoles
93) Who described single celled organisms as animalcules?
A) Anton van Leeuwenhoek
94) Who first observed muscle fibres, spermatozoa and blood cells under microscope?
A) Anton van Leeuwenhoek
95) Who invented the first compound microscope?
A) Zacharias Jansen
96) Who designed the first electron microscope?
A) Max Knoll & Ernst August Friedrich Ruska
97) Who discovered nucleus?
A) Robert Brown
98) Who discovered cytoplasmic streaming?
A) Robert Brown
99) Who discovered mitochondria?
A) Richard Altmann
100) How did Altmann call mitochondria?
A) Bioblasts
101) Who coined the term "mitochondria?
A) Carl Benda
102) Who discovered Janus green as supra vital stain for mitochondria?
A) Leonor Michaelis
103) Who discovered chloroplasts?
A) Julius von Sachs
104) Who discovered  9 + 2 microtubule structure in cilia?
A) Keith Roberts Porter
105) Who coined the term endoplasmic reticulum?
A) Keith Roberts Porter
106) Who discovered peroxisome and lysosome?
A) Christian René Marie Joseph Viscount de Duve
107) Who is considered "the most influential cell biologist ever"
A) Palade
108) Who discovered ribosomes on endoplasmic reticulum?
A) Palade
109) Who discovered double helical model of DNA?
A) Watson & Crick
110) Who discovered the chromosomal movements in mitosis?
A) Flemming
111) Who described sarcosomes and later they come to be known as the mitochondria?
A) Albert von Kölliker
112) What is the study of nucleus?
A) Karyology
113) What are the most primitive forms of life on the Earth?
A) Prokaryotes
114) What kind of other cells form about 95% of all the cells in the human body?
A) Bacteria
115) What is the term used to describe the suicide committed by cells?
A) Apoptosis
116) What are the human cells with longest life span?
A) Neurons
117) What is the smallest objects that the unaided human eye can see?
A) About 0.1 mm long
118) What is the maximum possible power of a light microscope as it is limited by the wavelength of visible light?
A) 500 nm
119) What is required to see anything smaller than 500 nm?
A) Electron microscope
120) What is the size of most bacterial cells?
A) 0.2 to 10 microns
121) What is the size of Amoeba proteus?
A) 250 to 750 microns
122) What is the size of most animal cells?
A)10 to 100 microns
123) What is the diameter of an RBC?
A) 8 microns
124) What is the length of a giraffe's nerve cell?
A) 2 meters (about 6 feet)
125) What is the length of an ostrich egg cell?
A) 6 inches (half foot)
126) What is the size of a human egg cell?
A) 100 microns
127) What is the size of a ramie fibre, longest cells in the plant kingdom?
A) 13 to 15 cm (5 to 6 inches)
128) What is the instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye?
A) Microscope
129) Which is the most common microscope?
A)  Optical microscope or light microscope
130) What was the first microscope to be developed?
A)  Optical microscope or light microscope
131) Who coined the term microscope for Galileo Galilei's compound microscope?
A) Giovanni Faber
132) What are the branches of microscopy?
A) Optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopy
133) What are the microscopes functioning on visible light?
A) Optical or light microscopes
134) Which is the most advanced light  microscope? A) Digital microscope & Fluorescents microscope
135) Which is the simplest of all the light microscopy techniques?
A) Bright field microscopy
136) How could we get the 3-dimensional image in a light microscope?
A) By oblique illumination
137) What is the technique for improving the contrast of unstained, transparent specimens?
A) Dark field microscopy
138) What is the optical technique that results in a coloured image of a colourless object?
A) Dispersion staining
139) What is the microscopic technique to show differences in refractive index?
A) Phase contrast
140) Who invented the phrase contrast microscope?
A) Frits Zernike
141) Who invented the first electron microscope or the transmission electron microscope (TEM)?
A) Ernst Ruska
142) What is used in the place of light in electron microscope?
A) Electrons
143) In what kind of microscopes photons are used?
A) Optical or light microscopes
144) What is used instead of lenses in electron microscope?
A) Electromagnets
145) Who invented the scanning electron microscope?
A) Max Knoll
146) Who invented the first scanning probe tunnelling  microscopes?
A) Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer
147) Who invented the atomic force microscope?
A) Gerbe
148) What is the magnifocation  limit of a light microscope?
A) up to 1250 X
149) What is the resolution limit of a light microscope?
A)  0.250 micrometres or 250 nanometres
150) What is the magnification of the simplest optical microscope (magnifying glass)?
A)  10X magnification
151) Which lens is at the top of a compound microscope to look through?
A) Eyepiece Lens
152) What is the general illuminator in a compound microscope?
A) Mirror or 100 volts light source
153) Which part of the microscope holds two or more objective lenses and can be rotated to easily change power?
A) Revolving Nosepiece or Turret
154) Which lens is kept near the object to see in the compound microscope?
A) Objective lens
155) What is the magnification power of objective lenses in a compound micriscope?
A) 4X, 10X, 40X and 100X
156) What is the rotating disc to vary intensity and size of the cone of light at the base of the stage?
A) Diaphragm
157) What are the components of the Gram stain used for bacteria?
A) Crystal violet, iodine and fuchsin or safranin
158)Which stain is used to mark bacterial cell walls?
A) Crystal violet
159)Which dye is used to stain cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
A) Ziehl-Neelsen stain
160) Which dye stains the cell nucleus blue?
A) Haematoxylin
161) Which dye stains cytoplasm and RBC pink or bright red?
A) Eosin
162) Which dye is used to mark carbohydrates (glycogen, glycoprotein, proteoglycans)?
A) Periodic acid- Schiff staining
163) Which dye is a nucleic acid selective fluorescent cationic dye useful for cell cycle determination?
A) Acridine orange
164) What is used as an indicator for starch?
A) Iodine
165) Which dye is used to stain animal cells, such as human cheek cells, to make their nuclei more observable?
A) Methylene blue
166) Which is a red cationic dye that binds to nuclei (DNA),  cartilage, mast cells, lignin and plastids?
A) Safranine O
167) Which stain is used in optical microscopy to stain lipids?
A) Osmium tetroxide
168) From which part of Haematoxylum tree hematozylin dye is extracted?
A) Heartwood
169) Which is the common stain to observe mitochondria through a microscope?
A) Janus Green B
170) Which stain was used by Altmann to observe mitochondria?
A) Acid fuchsine
171) Which is the common acidophilic dye in microscopic studies?
A) Eosin
172) Which is the common basophilic dye in microscopic studies?
A) Janus Green B
173) What kind of stains are applied on living cells without killing them?
A) Vital stains
174) What are the common vital stains?
A) Eosin, Propidium iodide, Trypan Blue, Erythrosine, Amino actinomycin D,
Janus Green B
175) Which branch of science deals with the study of DNA and RNA?
A) Molecular Biology